Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (or thrombosis) in a deep vein in the leg and can be a serious condition if left untreated.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that develops within a deep vein in the body, usually in the leg.
Deep Vein Thrombosis can cause swelling and pain in the leg but often occurs without giving any symptoms. A DVT may well settle completely as the thrombosis is dissolved by the body naturally. However, if a DVT extends up the deep veins it can become dislodged from the vein, and get carried through the main veins and heart to lodge in the lungs - also known as a pulmonary embolism. Small pulmonary emboli may cause chest pain, and sometimes coughing up of blood. Multiple or larger pulmonary emboli may cause breathlessness. A large pulmonary embolism which blocks the main blood vessels to the lungs can be fatal.
The thrombosis can also cause chronic blockage in the deep veins or damage to their valves, leading to long term swelling and sometimes skin problems at the ankle.
Due to the inherent complexity of the many vascular disorders, there may be more than one way of managing a particular condition. For this reason, when planning a procedure, your consultant will discuss all the treatment options in a multidisciplinary team meeting, to ensure that all perspectives are considered before recommending a course of action to a patient
There is no evidence that wearing below-knee graduated compression stockings reduces the chance of DVT for people with special risk factors, as there is no direct evidence about people being at special risk of DVT as a result of long journeys. However, based on surgical evidence, the following factors can increase the risk of DVT.
+ Having had a recent major operation
+ Obesity or being overweight
+ Taking the contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
+ Medical Blood Thinners - such as aspirin or anticoagulants such as heparin injections, or warfarin by mouth may be advisable for a few people who have medical conditions with a particularly high risk of DVT. This kind of treatment will always be on the explicit advice of a doctor.
+ Compression Techniques - graduated compression stockings reduce the risk of DVT. They also help to prevent the ankle swelling which many people experience on long journeys.
+ Clot Removal - also known as Thrombectomy is the process of physically removing or breaking up blood clots. Surgery to remove a blood clot is rare. It's only considered if the blood clot is very large and is blocking a major blood vessel. This step is normally done as a last option if the use of clot-dissolving drugs or other treatments is not an option or has been unsuccessful.
+ Deep Vein Stenting - veins have been blocked for a long time can cause scarring and narrowed veins. The use of balloons and stents to dilate up the blocked veins and keep them open can be used in cases like these. This requires careful planning and is only suitable for certain cases.
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