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What Is A Pigmentation & Age Spots v2?

Pigmentation affects much of the UK adult population and although it doesn’t pose any specific health risks it can have a profound effect on an individuals’ self-esteem. Common factors such as; ageing, sun exposure and environmental damage contribute to this condition making it particularly difficult to avoid. 

Our very own melanin reserves are affected causing the cells to build-up in the deepest layers appearing on the skin’s surface as brown spots.  Effective treatment options can seem limited, however at the Cadogan Clinic, we provide the very latest non-surgical light therapies to help minimise the appearance of pigmentation.  A tailored treatment plan combining advanced light therapies and prescriptive treatments can dramatically improve tone and complexion and our treatments are quick, painless and targeted, delivering exceptional results with minimal downtime.

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My Face My Body Awards Finalist 2017 Aesthetics Awards Winner 2017 Highly Commended 2018 My Face My Body Awards Winner 2016

Surgeons

We have invited a selection of the country's very best consultants to join us at the Cadogan Clinic so that you can be sure that whatever the nature of your treatment, you will be seeing one of the top practitioners in the country.

Mr. Naveen Cavale

Plastic, Reconstructive & Cosmetic Surgeon / GMC: 4190952

Mr. Naveen Cavale is a fully qualified and fully accredited UK Plastic Surgeon who graduated from University College London and the Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh......

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Mr. William Van Niekerk

Aesthetic Plastic And Reconstructive Surgeon / GMC: 4362791

Mr. William Van Niekerk is a consultant plastic, reconstructive, aesthetic, and burn surgeon with over 20 years of medical experience......

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Mr. David Gateley

Consultant Plastic And Reconstructive Surgeon / GMC: 2939470

Mr. David Gateley is a Consultant Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon with a special interest in facial aesthetics, rhinoplasty and complimentary surgical and non-surgical rejuvenation techniques......

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See all Plastic Surgeons

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Why Do People Have It?

Who Is Suitable?

Cadogan Clinic considers individuals fit for the procedure, if all of the following are true of them:

  • An adult with fully developed breasts
  • Physically and psychologically fit and healthy
  • Concerned by the size or shape of at least one of their breasts, either for aesthetic or comfort reasons
  • Have realistic expectations of what can be achieved by surgery

Testimonials

The Process

What are the risks

Complications are unlikely. That said, as with all surgery, some complications are possible, your surgeon will discuss each of these risks comprehensively at your consultation.

Why come to The Cadogan Clinic for your Pigmentation & Age Spots v2?

What Can I Expect From My Surgery?

Our Surgical Patient Advisor, Ellie, answers our patients most frequently asked questions.

What can I expect from my surgery?

Frequently Asked Questions

Skin tags are small growths that hang off your skin. They're common and harmless, but can be removed if they're bothering you, purely for cosmetic reasons.

You may be suitable for a Buttock lift if you have:

+ Loose sagging skin in/around your buttocks
+ Inelastic, lax buttock skin
+ Excess fat deposits in your buttocks
+ Unshapely, untoned buttock contours
+ Disproportionate buttocks relative to rest of figure

Loose sagging skin in the buttock area can be caused by a number of common factors:

+ Genetics, occurs naturally
+ Dramatic weight loss
+ Ageing

One of our highly trained, elite plastic surgeons will perform your Buttock lift.

All our Buttock lift and liposuction specialists have been hand picked by Mr Bryan Mayou, our founder, and the pioneer of liposuction in the UK.

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Will I require a single surgery or multiple surgeries?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of Buttock lift procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

No special preparation is required although it is generally advisable to do the following before any surgery

+ Stop smoking. Smoking decreases blood flow in the skin and can slow the healing process. If you smoke, your doctor will recommend that you stop smoking before surgery and during recovery.
+ Avoid certain medications. You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase bleeding.
+ Arrange for help during recovery. Make plans for someone to drive you home after you leave the hospital and stay with you for at least the first night of your recovery at home.

Buttock lift surgery should take two hours.

You should start to see results in the days following surgery. These will fully start to appear from around the six week mark and improvements will be ongoing for the first 12 or so months.

Your results will be long lasting so long as you maintain your body weight following surgery.

The ageing process will however continue from your new post procedure point, and skin laxity will gradually increase over time. The ageing process will start from a far better point however, so it should be many years before this becomes noticeable again.

As you get older, however, you should expect to see the buttock skin begin to sag again, particularly if you gain weight

You will not feel any pain during the procedure as you will be under the influence of anaesethetic.

Immediately following surgery, you may experience discomfort but any pain should be tolerable. Your surgeon can provide painkillers for this and the majority of patients no longer need them a few days after buttock surgery.

Buttock lift surgery is straightforward, safe surgery although you should be aware of all the risks and complications before going ahead with surgery. Some are listed on this page, but your surgeon at your will go through these at length and in full at your consultation

Recovery time for this procedure will depend on the individual patient.

We usually advise that you take around two weeks off work following surgery as there will be bruising and swelling which may take around 10 days to subside. We also recommend you do not resume exercise for 4 – 6 weeks.

In the following few weeks, as you heal, smoother skin on the buttock and scars will start to heal.

Our expertise in scarring techniques along with our highly-experienced surgeons ensure a great result, and whilst a Buttock lift surgery is not an especially painful procedure, you may experience discomfort due to the tight sensation of the skin. Effective pain relief can be provided by your aftercare team should you required it.

If you have undergone Liposuction, you will feel a little bruised and stiff for a few days but there is no restriction on movement. Any dressings can be removed in a couple of days or when they come loose, and stitches removed in a week.

Yоu may соntіnuе tо experience ѕоmе mіld, реrіоdіс dіѕсоmfоrt and ѕwеllіng durіng thіѕ tіmе, but ѕuсh fееlіngѕ аrе nоrmаl. Sеvеrе pain, bleeding or swelling should bе reported tо your surgeon.

You will receive more detailed advice from your surgeon ahead of surgery.

You will need to wear a tight fitting body garment for the first few weeks to support the area. You should not engage in any strenuous activities until your surgeon releases you to do so.

Your scars will be permanent but will eventually fade. You should allow 9 - 12 months for your scars to flatten and lighten in colour.

Aside from liposuction, it's also possible to combine a Buttock lift surgery with a thigh lift or even a knee lift.

On the front of the knee, there are generally two bulges, just below the kneecap on the front on either side on which the fat can be removed if that is something you're concerned about for your over-all look. Buttock lift surgery is performed as a day case, meaning you will be able to return home after the surgery. You can expect to have reasonable mobility back after a few days, and a return to your full daily activities after 6-8 weeks.

A buttock lift isn't for everyone. Your doctor might caution against a buttock lift if you:

+ Have a severe chronic condition, such as heart disease or diabetes
+ Plan to lose a significant amount of weight
+ Have a body mass index that's greater than 32
+ Are a smoker
+ Have an unstable mental health condition

It is important that for at least two weeks after your surgery that you avoid sitting for a prolonged period of time. As a general rule, you should avoid putting direct pressure on the buttocks as much as possible after your surgery.

You can do this by using a pillow to raise your buttocks when you sit down. You should also try to sleep on your front or sides immediately after surgery. We recommend that you try and avoid sleeping on your back for the first three weeks as this also puts pressure on the buttocks.

For the first four weeks after your surgery, you will need to avoid all sport and strenuous exercise. During this time, we recommend going on gentle walks to keep active, which in turn will help with your recovery.

After week four, you will be able to start doing some exercise again. However, you should still avoid strenuous activity and contact sports. After six to eight weeks you should be able to resume all sports and exercise. This includes contact sports and weightlifting.

You should ask your surgeon for specific timeframes of when you will be able to return to sport and exercise.

The Brazilian Butt Lift (BBL) is a controversial fat grafting procedure that involves the transfer of large amount of harvested fat into the buttock area in order to add volume to the buttock region and improve the body contour.

This highly controversial procedure has been banned in the UK, however, given the incidence of potentially fatal fat embolism associated with this procedure in other countries.

A buttock lift involves the removal of fat from the buttock area, not the grafting of additional fat, and is a completely safe, alternative contouring procedure.

You are suitable for a Non Surgical Facelift if:

+ You are in good psychological and physical medical health
+ You have a positive outlook and realistic expectations of what can be achieved via treatment
+ You are seeking to eliminate or reduce signs of facial ageing
+ You are looking for an quick, effective, non invasive solution, able to deliver long lasting results
+ You are in your 30s and 40s and looking for an alternative to a surgical facelift, or delay the timing of when you may need one
+ You have already had a surgical facelift some years ago and are looking to maintain the results

Who performs the exact treatments will depend on what precise combination of treatments comprise your bespoke plan.

We only offer consultant – led anti-ageing injectable and dermal filler treatments, performed by highly trained cosmetic dermatologists or plastic surgeons.

The majority of our laser and Ultherapy treatments are also only delivered by cosmetic dermatologists or plastic surgeons.Some milder treatments such as chemical skin peels and microneedling can be performed by one of our aesthetic practitioners.

The Cadogan Clinic takes patient safety and patient outcomes extremely seriously. We insist on high quality treatments delivered by highly trained practitioners as part of our medical philosophy and medical ethics approach.

Results are immediate following each individual treatment, although final results should start to fully resolve after about 6 weeks. Best results will be visible 3 months after your treatment plan has ended

Yes. The majority of treatments that comprise a Non Surgical Facelift are fully reversible.

That said, your consultant will look to layer results on top of each other gradually throughout your treatment plan, meaning you should be able to avoid a situation where results need to be reversed

How long results last will depend on what type of treatment or procedure you get. With nonsurgical procedures, it's likely you'll need to get them done regularly to maintain your desired results.

Your practitioner should advise you on when to return for a follow-up visit, but most patients will be able to tell on their own, as they'll notice the treatments wearing off.

With regular maintenance and proper treatment, it is possible for patients who start in their 30s to prevent the signs of ageing and maintain a very youthful look into their 50s.

In general, we consider non surgical facelifts a temporary fix that can last one to two years, whereas a surgical facelift typically lasts 10 years.

Anti Ageing injectables and Dermal fillers require no cuts, incisions or stitches to be made, but it can feel like a tiny scratch or stinging sensation as the needle goes in and the treatment is applied.

Laser, Microneedling and Ultherapy treatments should also involve minimal pain.

For those feeling anxious, we can use a local anaesthetic to numb the area completely.

Non Surgical Facelift injections are very safe. Possible side effects include temporary bruising, swelling and asymmetry.

By avoiding surgery, however, you will avoid many of the side effects and risks associated with a more invasive approach.

Downtime is very minimal, and most patients are able to return to their normal activities immediately after their treatment.

If you experience some swelling and bruising in the treated area, you should be able to cover any bruising with makeup.

You should seek medical advice as soon as your first symptoms begin.

Some key information to share with your dermatologist includes:

+ whether the rash is itchy and where it appears
+ when the symptoms first began
+ whether it comes and goes over time
+ whether there's a history of atopic eczema in your family
+ whether you have any other conditions, such as allergies or asthma
+ whether something in your diet or lifestyle may be contributing to your symptoms

There is evidence that eczema is genetic and it is common that eczema sufferers also have family members who suffer from the condition.

This is a very common disorder, however, impacting roughly 10% of children and a variety of other causes are also known to be associated beyond genetics, including an array of environmental and medical causes.

Eczema is not contagious

Eczema is not typically dangerous, although at its most severe symptoms can be extremely uncomfortable and distressing. You should seek medical advice if you are experiencing symptoms

Eczema is a chronic condition. It is common for symptoms to improve with age, however, and your symptoms may go into remission of their own accord, even without proper treatment and control

Eczema is a chronic condition. There is no cure for eczema. Some treatments can control the condition permanently, or even prompt long remissions.

But since eczema is linked to genetic makeup, we do not have a permanent cure for the disease

Whilst your results may essentially prove permanent, treatments are only able to control the disease and are not able to fully cure it.

It will not be known at the outset whether your treatment is able to deliver permanent results for you

It is often difficult for an untrained eye to tell the difference between the two conditions.

You will need to seek a professional medical opinion from a trained dermatologist to understand your skin condition if you are unsure

A wart is a small growth with a rough texture that can appear anywhere on the body. It can look like a solid blister or a small cauliflower on the surface of the skin. They are best treated with cryotherapy, or freezing therapy

A cyst is a pouch-like capsule of membranous tissue that contains fluid, air, or other substances. Cysts can grow almost anywhere in your body or under your skin.

There are many different types of cysts. Most cysts are benign, or noncancerous.

A mole is cluster of pigmented skin cells that appear flat or raised on the surface of the skin. Most moles are harmless, but a proportion of them become malignant and develop into dangerous skin cancers.

The majority of skin lumps and bumps will be benign and not dangerous at all. That said, depending on what exact type of lump they are, they they can be extremely dangerous if allowed to develop unchecked.

We recommend seeking professional opinion if you have a skin lump or bump on your body. If it is painful, itchy or bleeding, we suggest you do so urgently. It should also be seen urgently, if it is growing and changing size, shape and colour.

Skin lumps, bumps, tags, warts, cysts and moles can be removed from anywhere on the body.

Absolutely. The most common motivation for removing these benign blemishes is cosmetic. It is only in a minority of cases where skin cancer is suspected that they will be removed for medical reasons.

Surgical excision of skin tags, warts, and moles is not painful as it is performed under local anaesthetic. You should not feel a thing.

Cryotherapy takes between 5 and 10 seconds per treatment, and is usually well tolerated. You should expect to feel a localised sensation of cooling on the surface of your skin.

Once they have formed, skin lumps and bumps are unlikely to go away on their own. If their appearance is bothering you, you will need to seek cosmetic treatment to remove them.

Surgical excision or cryotherapy will permanently remove the skin lump or bump targeted by treatment. It will not prevent new lumps and bumps appearing in new locations on the skin

Our dermatologists and plastic surgeons are experts at managing the scarring process. Whilst there may well be a minor pink or white scar, these will typically fade with time

Recovery time should be instant. You will be able to immediately resume daily activities in most cases.

You may be asked to wear a dressing for a few days, and the site of treatment may be a little tender.

Complications are rare.

Smart Lipo laser liposuction is performed at the Cadogan Clinic by Mr Ayham Al-Ayoubi [LINK], the UK's leading Smart Lipo surgeon.

Mr Ayoubi developed the concept of Laser Liposuction and was the first Surgeon to introduce all generations of Smartlipo lasers into the UK. He had performed over 2,000 laser liposuction and body contouring procedures since 2006.

Scar revision is a highly individualized procedure and you should do it for yourself, not to fulfill someone else's desires or to try to fit any sort of ideal image.

Scar revision can be performed on people of any age and is a good option for you if:

+ You are bothered by a scar anywhere on your body
+ You are physically healthy
+ You have a positive outlook and realistic goals for your scar revision surgery
+ You do not have active acne or other skin diseases in the area to be treated

Scars can be treated anywhere on the face and body

First the treated area is marked up and a small incision (1-2 mm) is made with a micro-scalpel and the local anaesthetic is injected.

The optical fibre of the laser is inserted with its progress through the skin tissue clearly observed from the surface by the light on the laser.

Treatment involves tracing the marked up lines on the surface of the skin with the laser underneath, in a regular, metronomic lengthways movement. The laser breaks down the fatty tissue via thermal energy and the mechanical movement, and transforms the fat cells into an oily emulsion that can be suctioned out easily.

There are no stitches, only very small incision sites that heal quickly in a few days. The treatment take about 1-2 hours depending on the number of treated areas. Given the minimal trauma involved in the treatment, recovery is much quicker than with traditional alternatives, and you can be back to daily life the very next day.

The length of Laser liposuction treatment depends on the number of areas being targeted. Surgery time can range from 1 hour to 3 hours.

Most patients can see instant results following the SmartLipo procedure, however, it is important to remember that there will be some swelling after surgery. Once this subsides your full results will be visible – this should take between one to two months maximum.

Laser liposuction results are long lasting providing a healthy diet, lifestyle and weight are maintained following surgery.

Downtime is very limited. The patient is free to leave the Clinic after several hours, and should immediately resume reasonable mobility. Exercise should be limited for a maximum of two weeks, with a return to work possible the very next day.

It is still unknown what the exact cause of keloid scarring is.

They can develop after surgery, after major skin trauma, or even after very minor skin damage such as is caused by chickenpox, minor scratches or vaccination sites. Strangely, they may also develop even if there's no obvious damage to the skin at all.

Keloids typically occur in younger individuals, often between the ages of 10 – 30 years of age. The tendency to keloid scar does run in families.

The darker the skin, the more susceptible it is to keloid scarring. Studies show that whilst Caucasian skin has a 2% incidence of keloid scarring, this is as high as 12% among darker toned skin profiles

Keloids have a shiny and hairless appearance with a firm 'rubbery' feel. They usually occur on the upper chest and shoulders – particularly over the thin skin on the breastbone – and on the earlobes.

In people with dark skin they often occur in the beard area and on the scalp.

Keloid scars are not dangerous, but can be itchy and tender or even painful to touch.

The emotional impact of these scars, however, is often greater than the physical one as they can cause great distress, particularly in younger patients, and can seriously undermine self-confidence.

Keloids carry no cancer risk.

The sooner the better. Ideally the scar is being treated as soon as the wound site starts healing.

Some people produce better scars than others.

A 'good' scar fades significantly after appearing and blends in with the surrounding skin tone. A 'poor' scar, such as a keloid or hypertrophic scar, will stay visible and cause skin irritation for a number of months after formation. When these 'poor' scars fade they tend to whiten, flatten but, remain visible.

Good scars have the following characteristics:

+ Often caused by having the right genes. Some people simply scar better than others. Darker skin is more prone to make the worst scars, so too Celtic skin and those with red hair at the opposite extreme are also often poor scar makers
+ The scar is in the right direction in the lines of skin tension. Experienced trained surgeons will choose to position scars properly as for instance transversely across the abdomen rather than vertically downwards.
+ Located in naturally optimal areas, such as by avoiding the centre of the chest or tip of the shoulder
+ Scars may be hidden discretely below areas such as the breast, behind the ear, in the groin or in the armpit (axilla).
+ Influenced early by proper surgical care. Surgeons can influence the result by meticulous technique and using dissolving sutures or glue and removing other stitches early enough to avoid stitch marks.

The Cadogan Clinic has introduced the Bilhi genetic test that can determine from a saliva sample whether you might be a 'poor' scar former. This is particularly useful ahead of surgery, since a positive result can influence the decision to go ahead with surgery, and where to place scars if one does. It can also mean our comprehensive Scar Management programme can be applied proactively, immediately after surgery.

We are the only clinic in the UK where this is available.

Your scar revision surgery will be performed by one of our trained plastic surgeons and scar specialists. We are proud to have scar specialists trained in the military who are experts in soft, tissue reconstructive surgery and experts in the scarring process.

There is very little preparation prior to scar revision surgery, however, at your consultation with your surgeon you may be asked to do the following in advance of your treatment:

+ Take certain medications or adjust your current medications
+ Stop smoking well in advance of surgery
+ Avoid taking aspirin and certain anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding

Scar revision surgery can last anywhere between 20 minutes to 1 hour, and is performed as a day case treatment under local anaesthetic.

We are passionate about scar treatment and scar management, and offer all types of Scar Revision treatment at the Cadogan Clinic.

These range from the surgical to the non-surgical (e.g. ICON Laser, IPL, Dermal Fillers, Enerjet etc.).

It is vital that you speak to one of our specialists to develop the right programme for you.

Scar revision surgery is most commonly performed to improve the cosmetic appearance of a scar, however it is also frequently performed for functional reasons as well.

This is most commonly the case in the instance of 'contracture'. This occurs when the formation of a scar interferes with the movement of the underlying muscles and joints, such as when a shortening or tightening of the skin causes a corresponding tightening impact on the underlying muscles. Contractures may interfere with a range of motion and other aspects of joint functioning, as well as deform the shape of the scarred body part or affect key muscle groups, such as the muscles in the face responsible for controlling facial expressions.

The final results of your scar revision surgery will be long-lasting, however it may take several months for your final results to become apparent and in some cases it may take a year for the new scar to fully heal and fade.

Scar Revision takes place under local anaesthetic. You should not feel any pain during the procedure, and pain should be minimal during the healing process.

You may have a little swelling or bruising after treatment, as well as minor skin colour changes. These may last for 1 to 2 weeks after your surgery.

It is not uncommon to experience altered sensation following your treatment. This may either manifest in increased sensitivity (apart from the early discomfort of surgery), or the reduction in feeling around the treated area. These changes in sensation usually last for a month or so following surgery.

There is very little downtime after scar revision surgery. Most patients will be able to return to work the same day or the following day. Your surgeon will give you clear instructions at your consultation.

We strongly recommend that you do not sit out in strong sunlight for the first 2 weeks after surgery.

Once fully recovered and the scars are matured you may expose areas on the body or face that have been treated as per normal.

Scar quality is extremely important to us and to our patients. To mitigate the risk or impact of scars, we take a proactive scar management approach to all of surgical activity done on site.

All patients undergoing surgical procedures with us are eligible for this treatment, but this will be of particular interest to patients who could potentially have larger scars in areas of the body where they could be an issue. In particular after breast surgery, abdominal reduction and face lifts.

Our care programme includes:

+ Bespoke, tailored advice from our post-operative wound care nursing team
+ 24 – hr access to our on call nursing team to answer any questions
+ Access to core follow up treatments such as; Silicone gel or sheets, ICON Fractional laser treatmentLED light treatment 
+ Some patients may be advised to also undergo:

PRP: healing factors (platelet rich plasma) are taken from your own blood and injected them under the scar to promote healing and tissue rejuvenation.
Micro-needling or 'collagen induction therapy'. This involves using fine needles to create hundreds of tiny, invisible puncture wounds in the top layer of skin. These micro injuries are virtually painless and stimulate the body's natural wound healing processes resulting in increased collagen and elastin production, tissue regeneration and skin repair
Steroid Injections: A highly effective treatment for lowering and taking inflammation out of established active scars and for those at risk of developing keloids.
Irradiation for keloids: a treatment via superficial radiotherapy to prevent keloids from forming post surgery. In the case of existing keloids, they can be excised and the new wound treated with irradiation to prevent a new one from forming.
Repair cream (Ticalfate, Cicaplast): a useful adjunct, but given for patient comfort rather than efficacy.

Whilst we cannot guarantee a perfect scar, we can guarantee that our scar management programme will give your body the very best chance to heal and recover properly.

The most important aspect of long-term aftercare is protecting the affected area from the sun because the surgical scar will take about a year to mature and is only about 80% as strong as undamaged skin. Sunlight can cause burns, permanent redness, loss of pigment in the skin, and breakdown of the collagen that maintains the skin's elasticity.

Aftercare following the use of skin grafts or flaps is slightly more rigid. You will be scheduled to return to the Clinic at regular intervals so that your graft sites can be monitored. If artificial skin has been used you must keep the site(s) completely dry until advised otherwise – this may require specific restrictions around bathing or showering as well as clothing choice, i.e. wearing loose comfortable clothing can help reduce the disturbance to the treated area.

Massaging the treated areas after surgery when comfortable enough to do so (usually 2 weeks following surgery) is a very important part of the healing process and helps to soften your skin, adjacent tissue, and helps accelerate healing - you will be given exact instructions about aftercare and which movements when massaging would be best.

Although scarring is largely a function of the trauma involved in creating it in the first place, for those patients undergoing elective surgery the following activity is recommended.

+ Take a pre-emptive BILHI genetic scarring test. This will give your surgical team the best idea of your genetic disposition toward poor scarring, and the team can plan accordingly
+ If you suffer from a chronic diseas, ensure that you are in the very best possible condition ahead of surgery. Infection rates and healing speed and quality can be directly impacted
+ Ensure you are properly nourished: overly nourished (obese) patients suffer more infections whilst underly nuourished (those lacking vitamins) lack the necessary elements to drive recovery
+ Avoid smoking. Smoking is always bad for healing and patients undergoing face lifts, breast reductions and lifts and abdominal reductions should stop smoking three weeks before surgery. If smokers are also over weight then the risk is greatly increased.
+ Avoid the sun – scars are sun sensitive. Post surgery it is important to stay out of the sun for a period of time, and use factor 50 sunblcok. Patients with olive or darker skin need particularly to avoid sunshine
+ Avoid exercise initially – exercise will cause tension in the wound and should be reduced in the first two weeks

Skilled surgeons can influence the quality of the scar by choosing the optimum position and orientation of the scar during surgery.

For instance, a vertical scar in front of the ear will be a good scar, while a transverse scar across the cheek will be a poor scar. Our Surgeons aim to keep the scar as short as possible and to repair the wound with appropriate stitches. Any conventional stitch through the skin will need to be removed early to avoid stitch marks. In many areas of the body the Surgeon will choose use dissolving suture materials under the skin, thus avoiding stitch marks altogether.

Any signs of slow healing or infection are treated promptly by our expert team. Prolonged redness or raised keloid scars are treated early, as well as patients with olive or darker skin may develop extra pigmentation around the scar, called post-inflammatory inflammation (PID).
Why are we so passionate about scar management at the Cadogan Clinic?

At the Cadogan Clinic we are passionate about scar management. This is because with due care and consideration, a far superior outcome can be achieved on a patient by patient basis, if the right process is adopted from the outset of treatment and the right treatments applied.

We have the skills in-house to dramatically improved patient outcomes, and we are passionate about delivering them to the widest possible audience via our programme.

Stretch marks typically appear in areas of the body which store the most fat, such as the stomach, legs, upper arms, hips, buttocks, thighs and breasts.

Very common. It is estimated that 90% of pregnant women get stretch marks at some point during their pregnancy. Incidence is also very high among overweight individuals and those who have experienced very rapid weight loss.

In most cases stretch marks are not preventable since they are caused by unavoidable growth that occurs during pregnancy and puberty.

That said, avoiding rapid weight gain or weight loss is one way of minimising your chances of getting stretch marks. Try to lose or gain weight slowly and steadily to allow your skin time to adjust to the weight change.

Like any scar, stretch marks are permanent.

However, most stretch marks will become less prominent over time and fade to a faint white mark. The more severe the stretchmarks, the more likely that they will remain visible and noticeable without treatment.

You will be treated by one of our highly trained plastic surgeons who specialises in high energy devices.

The Cadogan Clinic believe the Enerjet system to be the most effective treatment for delivering lasting, high impact results for stretch marks.

The Enerjet remodels the dermal layer to thicken the thinned layers of the dermis, and correct the tone and texture of the affected area of skin.

The Enerjet also benefits from being needle-free, and is suitable for all skin types and areas of the body, however delicate or sensitive.

No longer than 20 minutes per area targeted.

You can see results from just a single treatment, although up to 3 treatments set four weeks apart may be recommended given the severity of the condition.

You can see results from just a single treatment, although up to 3 treatments set four weeks apart may be recommended given the severity of the condition.

The procedure is safe with minimal downtime. There could be minor and tolerable pain, which a topical anaesthetic cream should be able to alleviate.

There is minimal downtime and you should be able to resume your daily activities immediately. Each treatment lasts just under 20 minutes, making it perfect for a lunchtime treatment.

Non surgical rhinoplasty employs the use of dermal fillers to reshape and recontour the nose, without the use of invasive plastic surgery.

The treatment lasts for up to a year, and delivers immediate, natural – looking and reversible results.

Non surgical rhinoplasty is best suited for improving the appearance of any minor cosmetic imperfections, whilst surgical alternatives are better suited to more major cosmetic and structural changes to the nose.

Lasemar™ is a subcutaneous single bare fiber and the latest innovation in the field. In this procedure, laser energy is delivered under the skin through a single-use fibreoptic, thinner than the diameter of a single hair, allowing much deeper and complex scarring to be addressed.

Enerjet™ is an air pressure device and a second major innovation in acne scarring. The Enerjet™ injects medications at very high pressure into the skin, in a pain-free needle-free way. The compressed injection blasts the scar, filling the resulting cavity with medication that the body replaces with its own collagen.

Both of these high energy devices are extremely powerful and involve the very latest in high energy technology. When in the right hands (only very few practitioners are qualified to handle the high energy levels of these machines) the results they are able to achieve are the very best in the marketplace.

It is important to address the inflammatory/infective component of acne before embarking on scar treatment due to the risk of cross infecting one area onto another. It is therefore essential we wait until your skin is almost clear of acne to begin treatment.

This will depend on the size of the area treated and the type of treatment selected. They can last anywhere from between a few minutes to an hour.

Acne scarring treatment is virtually painless. This will vary according to the type of treatment undergone.

You will see results of your treatment after the very first session, regardless of which treatment is selected. You will need to complete the full course to see your full results

This will depend on your pre-existing condition and the nature of your treatment. Your dermatologist will advise you on what to expect following your initial consultation.

A non- surgical rhinoplasty is a highly effective treatment to:

+ Smooth bumps and uneven contours
+ Improve nose profile
+ Correct asymmetrical noses
+ Straighten a hooked or crooked nose
+ Add height and profile to a flat nose
+ Correct nasal tip droops

A non- surgical rhinoplasty is not a suitable treatment for:

+ Reducing the overall size of the nose
+ Correcting major nose asymmetry
+ Nose tip reduction
+ Reducing large humps in the nose
+ Solving with breathing issues
+ Correcting a deviated septum

The treatment can take between 20 and 30 minutes, depending on the area being treated. Repeat visits can be shorter, and take between 10 – 15 minutes

Dermal Filler treatments in the UK are currently unregulated meaning any aesthetic practitioner can perform them. This has led to the proliferation of low quality 'high street' providers, and filler treatments even being made available in non-medical environments such as gyms.

At the Cadogan Clinic we believe such practices are extremely risky and highly correlated with unsafe and poor aesthetic outcomes.

We only offer consultant – led filler treatments, performed by highly qualified plastic surgeons. This is particularly important when it comes to nose fillers given the importance of advanced techniques to deliver optimal aesthetic outcomes in the nose area.

Dermal filler treatments are generally not painful, although the amount of discomfort you experience may vary depending on the area.

Treatments around the lip and nose area are typically the most uncomfortable but this can still easily be tolerated with topically applied anaesthetic cream.

There is typically no downtime at all.

There may be a slight mild redness, swelling, tenderness, bruising, or itching which usually subsides after a few hours following treatment - most patients can return to work or to their regular activities immediately after receiving treatment, although we recommend 24hrs before doing any vigorous exercise.

Dermal fillers work instantly so you should start to see the results immediately. We typically recommend allowing a week or so before expecting to see the final results, in order to allow for any minor swelling or bruising to subside.

We specialise in the delivery of exceptionally precise treatments, and our consultants can control your outcome based on your stated personal preferences. Some patients prefer an extremely subtle change, whilst others may prefer something slightly more meaningful.

Either way your results will look natural, as our specialists will use the natural contours of your face to deliver the very best outcomes. You will also retain a full array of facial expressions.

This will all be discussed comprehensively at your consultation.

The vast majority of fillers used in the UK are temporary and reabsorbed by the body over time.

We only use temporary dermal fillers at the Cadogan Clinic. Our Dermal Filler treatments are therefore not permanent. How long they last depends on things like the type of filler and where it's injected. They usually last between 6 and 18 months.

Dermal Fillers are extremely safe when delivered by a trained medical practitioner. Outcomes can be managed precisely by a technical practitioner, and results are also not permanent and can be rectified ('dissolved') if they are not to your satisfaction.

That said, whilst extremely rare when fillers are delivered in a medical environment by a medical professional, possible risks include:

+ Asymmetry, or uneven result
+ Allergic reaction
+ Bruising, bleeding on injection site, swelling
+ Damage to skin and possible scarring
+ Lumps of filler under the skin
+ Skin necrosis
+ Infection

These risks will be fully discussed at your consultation prior to your consent.

Although there is no evidence that indicates dermal fillers are not safe during pregnancy, the Cadogan Clinic does not perform any injectable treatments on patients who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

During your consultation you will discuss your expectations in detail with your trained medical consultant, so there really should not be any surprise when it comes to the results.

That said, if you are unhappy with the results you are free to revisit the Clinic to see if your concerns can be rectified by the addition of further dermal filler, or neutralised by administering a solution that dissolves the filler almost instantly, leaving no lasting damage or effect.

It is best to arrive at the Clinic with your skin as best prepared for your dermal filler treatment as it can be. This would ideally include not drinking alcohol for 2-3 days prior to your appointment to lessen the risk of bleeding and bruising, as well as having had plenty of rest the night before your treatment to ensure you arrive feeling calm and relaxed.

It is also advised that you do not consume ibuprofen and aspirin for 1 week prior to your appointment as these can also thin your blood making bruising more likely.

Over time the naturally occurring active agent in dermal fillers – hyaluronic acid – will wear off. At this point you will need to visit the Clinic for additional treatment.

We do not offer permanent dermal filler treatments. For more permanent solutions, we typically recommend a surgical rhinoplasty as opposed to permanent fillers.

A vial is a measurement of the injectable liquid administered during dermal filler treatment. Typically, treatment for nasolabial folds (nose to mouth lines) requires 1-2 vials, marionette lines require 1 vial, lips require 1 – 2 vials and cheeks require 2 vials.

The cost of your treatment will relate to the number of vials you require during treatment.

Yes, all nose filler procedures are reversible if you are not happy with the results. This can be done in 10 minutes using the properties of a solution called hyalase.

No. Filler injections cause very little pain and are only slightly uncomfortable. The procedure is very straightforward and will only take around 30 minutes.

In some instances some topical local anaesthetic may be applied.

Yes, invasive and non invasive rhinoplasty procedures are highly complementary in their aims and outcomes, and work well together as combination treatments.

We recommend you wait at least a year however to allow for the full results of your surgical rhinoplasty to be visible.

If there are any remaining minor imperfections at this point, a non surgical rhinoplasty can be the optimal treatment to deliver your goals.Yes, invasive and non invasive rhinoplasty procedures are highly complementary in their aims and outcomes, and work well together as combination treatments.

You will certainly want to take good care of your nose area after your non surgical rhinoplasty treatment. Wearing glasses, is generally fine however.

Rhinoplasty surgery is generally a better option for those looking to make more significant changes to the size, shape and function of their nose.

We recommend you speak to your consultant about both during your consultation

IPL treatment is an appropriate treatment for most people, with the exception of those who are pregnant or who have taken strong antibiotics for acne prone skin in the past 6 months

The treatment typically takes no longer than an hour per session to complete.

The IPL treatments at Cadogan Clinic are carried out either by consultant dermatologists or one of our qualified nurses or skin therapists.

The ICON laser system uses Optimised Light photo-rejuvenation technology, which delivers gentle pulses of intense, optimised light to regions of unwanted pigmentation and facial vessels.

The appearance of sun spots, age spots, spider veins, rosacea and capillaries can all be reduced significantly. Treatment time can be as short as 30 minutes, depending on the size of the area to be treated. Three to five treatments should deliver optimal results but some patients may achieve their desired results after just one or two sessions.

There is very little preparation required before IPL therapy.

We typically simply recommend that you do not spend too much time in the sun in the six weeks ahead of your treatment, and avoid any treatments that will irritate the skin for two weeks prior

IP treatment is not painful. You should expect to feel a heated sensation as the pulses of light permeate your skin, with the most you can expect to feel a similar sensation to someone flicking an elastic band against your skin with each pulse.

If you are extremely sensitive to pain, topically applied anaesthetic can be considered before treatment and moisturiser can be applied immediately afterward.

There is typically no downtime at all.

Immediately after your ICON laser treatment, however, your skin will feel warm, red, and may be slightly swollen similar to that of bad sunburn, these effects usually resolve on their own within 1 to 3 days at most.

Some mild bruising may also occur over particularly delicate areas, crusting, scabbing, darkened patches, and, in quite rare cases, mild blistering can also be experienced. These reactions gradually subside within 1 to 2 weeks after treatment.

You should start to see the results in the days and weeks after your first treatment, and the tone and texture of your skin will begin to improve. Results improve over time, and with each successive treatment, particularly beyond the third treatment.

Your best results will be between 3 and 6 months after your final treatment. At this point you should expect to see a visible decrease of redness, dark spots and fine lines. Freckles and age spots may appear darker for up to a week before they fade gradually.

For optimal results, a series of 3 to 5 sessions spaced 3 to 4 weeks apart is recommended; patients may also wish to incorporate a treatment touch-up treatment every 6 months to maintain results.

The results should last between 12 and 18 months, at which point you can come back for a top up treatment.

Typically the less exposure to the sun in the treated area, the longer the results last.

IPL therapy is very safe. Any side effects such as (blistering, scabbing, redness or bruising) are temporary and tend to subside after just a few days.

These side effects will be fully discussed at your consultation prior to your consent.

IPL is an excellent and highly effective treatment for improving the appearance of pigmentation conditions. Most commonly these are age spots, brown spots, sun spots and sun damage.

The intense pulsed light emits light waves which are absorbed by the melanin and haemoglobin in the skin which causes the pigment to fragment. These pigment fragments are then broken down naturally by the body making them less visible in appearance.

IPL therapy can be used as a standalone non surgical treatment to treat burns and burns scars, or as a single element of a broader package of treatments.

When treating burns it is vital to make sure treatment follows a certain order and is delivered by experts (or team of experts) to ensure the best results and safety. You may be a better candidate for surgery.

Either way, it is vital to speak to one of our specialist burns and laser consultants to assess what the appropriate treatment is for you.

Acne can run in families but its representation in the population is extensive, and it can occur in anyone.

+ Cleanse your skin and remove make-up with a mild soap or a gentle cleanser and water, or an oil-free soap substitute
+ Eat a balanced diet including fresh fruit and vegetables
+ Wear oil-free, water based 'non-comodogenic' or 'non-acnegenic' makeup
+ Do not pick or squeeze existing acne, as this can aggravate the condition or encourage scarring
+ Seek immediate medical advice if you see acne starting to form

The visible signs of acne are actually caused by issues that develop underneath the skin.

In this layer of the skin there are tiny structures called sebaceous glands that produce an oily substance called sebum that lubricates the surface of your skin and hair.

Sebum usually passes through the hair follicle out into the surface of the skin. When the follicle becomes blocked, however, the sebum begins to build up inside, leading to the formation of pimples and spots on the surface of the skin.

This blockage can happen for a variety of reasons: most frequently, it is caused by an excess of sebum being produced, or dead skin cells or makeup blocking the exit point onto the surface of the skin.

Once the blockage has been created, sebum continues to be produced, making the issue worse.

Yes all types of acne can be treated, however severe. The more severe the case, the sooner you must seek medical advice

Outcomes and results vary by case and the status of the existing acne, when treatment is sought. It is most common for your acne to be fully cleared, although some particularly stubborn cases can require ongoing treatment

During the teenage years it is common for acne to disappear on its own. Adult acne is much less likely to clear on its own without treatment.

Given the material risk of scarring, we always recommend you get your acne looked at by a professional dermatologist or seek medical advice.

There are highly effective treatments for reducing the appearance of acne scars, sometimes completely. This depends on the type of scarring however.

To find out more, visit our dedicated Acne scars treatment page.

Yes, IPL treatments can be used to treat the appearance of acne. By undergoing a number of treatments, varying depending on the patient and the severity of the condition, IPL can help to destroy the bacteria that create acne, therefore reducing its appearance on the skin.

Cystic acne is one of the most severe types of acne.

It is caused when sebum and puss begin to build up inside the skin, and instead of breaking through the surface or being healed by the immune system, the acne continues to grow deep into the skin, sometimes even rupturing the sebaceous glands that produce the sebum in the first place in some cases.

This is the most difficult type of acne to treat, because it is too deep for most topical medications to be effective.

The difference between whiteheads and blackheads relate to variations in the skin follicles and whether they are closed off from the surface or not

+ Whiteheads are white to the eye, and occur when the follicle becomes closed off at the surface of the skin. The sebum, dead cells and bacteria therefore build up underneath the follicle inside the pore, causing the white coloration
+ Blackheads are black to the eye and form when the follicle becomes clogged. This material is not blocked off from the surface, but the clogged build up causes the edges of the follicle to expand, causing the pore to appear larger. The dark coloration is the visible sebum, dead cells and bacteria in the pore, not dirt as is commonly held

At the Cadogan Clinic laser skin resurfacing can be performed by one of our highly trained cosmetic dermatologists, or one of our skilled aesthetic practitioners.

The Fitzpatrick scale is an objective skin type classification scale used to determine whether laser skin resurfacing is a suitable treatment for you.

Only skin types 1 to 3 on the scale are suitable for laser skin resurfacing treatment

+ Type 1: always burns, never tans (pale, freckles).
+ Type 2: usually burns, minimal tanning.
+ Type 3: sometimes burns mildly, tans uniformly.
+ Type 4: burns minimally, always tans well (moderate brown).
+ Type 5: very rarely burns, tans very easily (dark brown).
+ Type 6: Never burns (deeply pigmented dark brown to darkest brown)

+ The wavelength of Nd: YAG targets pigment to heat it and denature the molecule. This cause the body's immune system to absorb the pigment naturally. This delivers unblemished skin that appears and feels rejuvenated.

+ On different settings, Nd: YAG can also target broken veins. It heats up the blood in the veins destroying and clotting at the same time which are then reabsorbed naturally by the body, often with immediate results.

+ Non-ablative laser usually results in effective dermal regeneration over a number of repeat sessions. It does not destroy tissues (non-ablative) so the downtime is remarkably low.

+ On the other hand, ablative fractional laser (Co2) results in marked dermal regeneration over a far shorter timespan because more energy is imparted to skin there is also a higher downtime which is usually capped at 5-7 days. Energy imparted to the skin excites a controlled inflammatory response. Cells that make-up the dermis and maintain it are recruited to the area. Such cells include fibroblasts which lay down new collagen and eventually reorient it according to the grain of the skin. When collagen and other ground substances (e.g. elastin) are deposited this results in plumped, rejuvenated more elastic and youthful skin.

+ On yet another setting Co2 laser can be used to resurface the skin and this can include sun-damaged areas leaving behind in-tact dermis from which new skin grows. Considering that this skin is perfectly matched to surrounding areas, the aim of rejuvenation is achieved.

We typically recommend 3 to 4 treatments for the very best outcomes, but this is determined by the pre-existing status of your skin condition. Your aesthetician can discuss this with you at your free consultation.

Laser skin resurfacing treatment should be virtually painless. We liken the pain to a pinch or an elastic band snapping against the skin. Topical anaesthetic can be applied if required

You should expect healing to take place in the first 5 – 7 days. That said, the skin's surface should immediately appear healthier, and first results should start to be seen after the very first treatment.

The underlying structure of the skin should improve for six months as new collagen is generated.

The very best results should be seen after a course of treatment, by which time your skin should appear completely rejuvenated and revitalised with a noticeable improvement in skin tone and texture, and a dramatic reduction in the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines.

Yes laser skin resurfacing is safe if performed by a qualified practitioner in a medical environment.

Side effects are rare, but like any cosmetic procedure are possible. This can include:

+ burning
+ bumps
+ rash
+ swelling
+ infection
+ hyperpigmentation
+ scars
+ redness

These can be mitigated by qualified practitioners practicing in a safe medical environment and according to proper protocols.

Skin rejuvenation treatments can be classified as follows:

+ Thermal (i.e. laser skin resurfacing)
+ Chemical (a 'chemical peel') 
+ Mechanical (e.g. dermabrasion)
+ Injection (e.g. anti-ageing injectables)
+ Light treatments (e.g. IPL treatments) 

We offer all of these at the Cadogan Clinic and would be delighted to explain the various pros and cons at your initial consultation.

Very much so. It is commonly combined with facial surgery such as a facelift or eyelid surgery.

IPL Skin Rejuvenation and Laser Skin Resurfacing are very different treatments.

An IPL Skin Rejuvenation treatment consists of a series of high-intensity pulses of broad spectrum light that pass through several layers of skin at once, targeting only the unwanted cells. IPL can thus improve the texture, quality, colour and health of your skin and treat multiple conditions simultaneously, such as the appearance of veins, capillaries, redness, age spots, blotchiness and freckles.

By contrast, Laser Skin Resurfacing delivers a direct beam of thermal energy to one specific target. Laser Skin Resurfacing  uses a laser beam focused on one specific wavelength and targets the very outer layers of the skin, which are removed, encouraging new skin to replace them. This process restores the smooth, even and fresh appearance that the skin tends to lose with age.

We offer two main Laser Skin Resurfacing treatments: ClearLift & Pixel Perfect, each having its own specific benefits and advantages.

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Which technique would you recommend given my existing anatomy?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Will I require a single surgery or multiple surgeries?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of breast reconstruction procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

After your surgery, you will be asked to come in for a post-operative appointment to come back and see our nursing staff at the Clinic between 1 and 2 weeks after your surgery. At this point your incision sites will be reviewed, and your preliminary healing will be assessed.

After 6 weeks your surgeon will personally review your progress – again at the Clinic - and make sure you are recovering as expected. In addition, they will remove any stitches and advise you on the need for further dressings.

Throughout the recovery period you will have full access to our 24/7 on call nursing service, and full access to the Clinic and our post-operative facilities.

Our aim is to make you feel as comfortable as possible during the entirety of your recovery period.

As your anaesthetic or sedation wear off you will wake up in our recovery facilities at the Clinic. You may feel a little drowsy but this often wears off within a few hours. After several hours in recovery, you will eat and hydrate. At that point, you will be allowed to leave the Clinic by our nursing staff.

It is common to feel a little pain and discomfort in the immediate aftermath of surgery. This will wear off in due course. Our 24/7 on call service is open to all patients for any question or query they may have at this time.

You will not be able to drive yourself home after the surgery. You should arrange for someone to pick you up and take you home. In addition, you will need to ask someone to stay with you for the first 24 hours after your procedure.

Final results are typically first seen six or so weeks after your procedure, with ongoing improvements beyond this point likely as the healing process fully completes over the coming 12 to 18 months.

Your surgeon will be able to give you specific guidance at your consultation.

Certain lifestyle factors can increase the risk of complications during and after your surgery. These include smoking, drinking alcohol, being overweight and taking drugs (for medical or recreational use.)

The most common impact of smoking before your surgery is that it increases your chances of developing an infection and inhibits your body's natural healing processes. We insist that all patients stop smoking and using nicotine products at least six weeks before surgery. Reducing alcohol intake is also strongly advised.

Your doctor will discuss your current BMI and drug use at your consultation and advise you further on this.

Women who have had a mastectomy to treat breast cancer generally do not need routine screening mammograms on the side that was affected by cancer, although they will need to regularly on the other breast.

Whilst it is possible for women with reconstructed breasts to get mammograms, cancer is more likely to come back in the skin or chest wall, and is therefore more likely to be found on a physical exam.

If you have a breast implant and you need a mammogram, it is very important to find a facility where they have expertise and experience of performing mammograms on patients with breast implants. This is because images can sometimes be impaired by implants, and the implant will need to be carefully positioned to get the best images of the breast.

Having a breast reconstruction or not is a highly personal decision. It is important to understand that it is your choice, and your choice alone.

Some women choose not to have their breast reconstructed at all and feel that a flat chest is a better acknowledgement and expression of their post- breast cancer personality. Others are happy to simply wear a prosthetic breast in their bra rather than have to undergo more surgery, although some women find it restricts their choice of clothing.

Talking to other women who have undergone treatment is an important step to understanding what the right path is for you. Likewise your friends, family and the health professionals looking after you can help you come to the right decision for you.
The good news is that if you choose not to have a reconstruction initially, you can still consider a delayed reconstruction at a later date if you change your mind. Excellent results will still be possible for you at this later date.

There are two categories, non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma.

The term 'non-melanoma' refers to basal cell cancers and squamous cell cancer. In the UK alone there are more than 100,000 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosed each year.

Basal Cell Cancer (BCC) – a BCC starts in the basal layer, the lowest layer of the epidermis and is the most common type of skin cancer, accounting for 75% of all cases

+ BCC usually appears as a small, pinkish or pearly white lump with tiny surface blood vessels
+ It also can appear as a red, dry/scaly patch of skin
+ There may be brown or black spots/pigmentation within the patch
+ The lump grows slowly, becoming bigger and may begin to crust over and bleed
+ It can also develop into a non-healing ulcer

Squamous Cell Cancer (SCC) – SCC starts in the upper layers of the epidermis and is the second most common form, accounting for 25% of all cases

+ SCC usually appears as a firm pink lump with a crusted surface
+ There may be a spiky horn protruding from the top
+ There may be surface scale and rough patches on the lump
+ It will be tender to the touch, bleeding easily
+ It may develop into an ulcer

Melanoma is the least common form of skin cancer, with less than 15,000 cases diagnosed each year, but it is the deadliest. It can develop anywhere on the body but most commonly on areas of the body that have been overexposed to the sun.

There are several types of melanomas, including:

+ Superficial Spreading Melanomas – these account for around 80% of all reported cases of melanoma in the UK. They are moles that spread radially and often have an irregular edge. In the radial growth phase, they usually remain confined to the skin and have not spread, but if they begin to grow deeper they can then metastasise to other parts of the body. If you have a mole with an irregular edge, get it examined by a doctor.

+ Lentigo Maligna Melanomas – these account for around 10% of all reported cases of melanoma in the UK. They often begin looking like a freckle on the face of the elderly and enlarge slowly. If they start to grow downwards and become nodular or change shape or pigmentation it is likely that melanoma has developed.

+ Acral Lentiginous Melanoma – these are a rare type of melanoma, accounting for only 5% of all reported cases. They occur on the palms of hands, the soles of feet or around a finger/toenail.

+ Amelanotic Melanoma – these are another rare type of melanoma, accounting for only 5% of all reported cases in the UK. They may have little or no colour or may be pink or greyish spots on the skin.

Roughly 115,000 new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed each year, of which roughly 15,000 are melanomas.

Incidence rates have increased materially in the past decades, and have doubled since the 1990s.

Incidence rates increase the older you are, with over 25% of new cases reported in the 75< age bracket.

Roughly 2,300 people die each year in the UK of skin cancer. That's more than 6 every day and roughly 1% of all cancer deaths.

The good news is that with early detection, survival rates are high. 9 in 10 people diagnosed with melanoma survive their disease for more than ten years.

The earlier the skin cancer is detected, the better the survival rate.

Melanoma is caused when skin cells, or melanocytes, begin to grow abnormally. The single most preventable cause is too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight and there is also evidence that the use of sunbeds can cause skin cancer.

There are certain people who have a predisposition to skin cancer or are more at risk:

+ People who burn easily in the sun
+ People with past episodes of sunburn, often with blister formation and often in childhood
+ People with many moles (more than 50)
+ People who have first-degree family members who have melanomas
+ People with a weakened immune system due to diseases (e.g. HIV), or those on drugs that suppress the immune system (e.g. organ transplant patients)

Melanomas may develop as either a new mole or occur as changes in a pre-existing mole. It is the fifth most common form of skin cancer in the UK, with approximately 13,000 cases being reported each year.

More than a quarter of those cases are in people under 50 years old, which is quite young in comparison to other cancers. More than 2000 people in the UK die every year from melanoma.

There are many ways that you can reduce your risk of skin cancer.

+ Limit your exposure to UV radiation
+ Use broad-spectrum sunblock when exposed to the sun. Broad spectrum will help protect against both UVA and UVB rays
+ Use a minimum of SPF 30 in your sunblock, ensure the UVA protection is adequate as denoted by UVA and apply thickly and frequently
+ Avoid the use of sunbeds (Using sunbeds for the first time below the age of 35 increases the risk of developing melanoma by nearly 60%
+ Perform a monthly skin self-examination looking for ABCDE of moles

ABCDE Checklist for suspicious features:

+ Asymmetry: Moles that are an irregular shape and have two different halves.
+ Border: Moles with a ragged border.
+ Colours: Moles that have a mix of two or more colours.
+ Diameter: Moles that are larger than 6mm (1/4 inch) diameter.
+ Evolution: A mole which has changed in size or shape over time.

When performing your monthly skin checks ensure you are doing it after a bath or shower, in a well-lit room, with the aid of a full-length mirror looking for any changes in moles thoroughly.

You can also self-assess yourself for risk of melanoma. The Melanoma Risk Factor Assessment checklist can tell you if you would benefit from a mole check by a dermatologist, or from more regular self-examinations.

The Melanoma Risk Factor Assessment:

+ Have you ever been sunburnt badly?
+ Does your skin burn first and then tan? Do you tan at all?
+ Do you have any outdoor hobbies?
+ Have you ever used sunbeds?
+ Have you ever lived anywhere abroad that was very hot/sunny?
+ Have you ever had a job where you worked outdoors?
+ Has anyone in your family ever had melanoma?
+ Do you wear sunblock when exposed to the sun?

If you notice any changes to a mole or a patch of skin, it is important to seek the advice of your GP or a dermatologist as soon as possible. If your regular GP has any concerns about the changes in your moles, they will refer you to a consultant dermatologist for further examination.

A dermatologist will perform a full skin examination to check all of your moles. If the dermatologist has any concerns about any unusual moles or patches of skin, they will either go on to remove (excise) the mole or take a sample of a suspicious patch of skin (biopsy) to send in for analysis.

It is important to note that not all changes to moles are the results of skin cancer. It is normal for moles to change in size, number or appearance over time, even some disappearing entirely. Hormonal changes, like those that occur with puberty or pregnancy, can also cause moles to increase in number or to become darker.

Finding skin cancer early saves lives because we are able to stop the metastasis, or spreading, of cancer to other organs or parts of the body. Skin cancer that is detected early is almost always curable.

If caught late, there is a higher chance that it has already spread through the body and affecting other organs. Thin melanomas, less than 1mm, have a 95% 5-year survival rate whereas thick melanomas, more than 4mm, have a 15-20% 5-year survival rate. Recent advances in treatment with immunotherapy have however improved these survival rates.

Performing a self-examination is key to detecting change. You can easily check yourself regularly for new growths or irregular moles - follow the ABCDE mole mapping guide.

You should speak to your GP or dermatologist immediately and seek professional advice

The Cadogan Clinic accepts both GP referrals and self-referrals (i.e. enquiries from patients directly).

We offer a variety of techniques to remove skin cancer, ranging from traditional surgical removal to the very latest and advanced 'Mohs' surgery.

In each case, procedures typically take less than half an hour and are quick, pain-free surgical treatments that take place under local anaesthetic.

Mohs surgery is the most advanced technique in removing and treating skin cancer. This surgery is performed by removing thin layers of cancerous skin progressively and examining each layer until only cancer-free skin tissue is left.

We aim to remove as much of the cancer tissues as possible without damaging the remaining healthy tissue. Mohs Surgery allows us to verify that all cancer cells have been removed, increasing the outcome of a cure while reducing the need for another surgery or treatment.

In the past, this type of skin removal surgery was performed by a doctor creating an excision of the cancer tissues, and at the same time removing the surrounding healthy skin. Now with Mohs surgery, there is much less damaging to the surrounding healthy skin, and there are better results.

Mohs surgery is an excellent treatment for skin cancers that have a risk of recurrence, are in more sensitive areas such as the eyes, nose, ears and genitals, or for more aggressive forms of skin cancers, melanomas and carcinomas.

One of the benefits of Mohs surgery is that you most likely won't leave your appointment until all the skin cancer is removed. You will know your results right away, as the doctor will be checking every layer of tissue as they're removed. This is performed as an outpatient procedure, and you will be able to head home the same day knowing that all cancerous cells have been removed.

Mole removal with one our specialist surgical team starts from £599.

Mole removal with one our specialist surgical team starts from £599.

The whole process does not take longer than half an hour

Moles are usually removed under local anaesthetic. After careful examination, the area around the mole will be cleaned and a surgical drape placed around the area to ensure a sterile working area.

Your surgeon will cut all the way around the mole, typically in an oval shape. The mole(s) will be placed in a specimen jar and sent to a lab for analysis. Your surgeon will close the wound with stitches, if required, and cover it with a dressing.

You will be able to go home after your procedure and return to work. It is unusual for such a minor procedure to impact your usual activities.

If you experience any pain following your mole removal, over the counter pain relief such as Paracetamol can be used.
Results of the analysis will be shared with you by our team within 24 hours.

Sometimes your surgeon will ask you to return a few days following your mole removal to inspect the wound and change the dressing. If the wound area becomes red, swollen or bleeds be sure to contact our 24 hour on-call nursing service.
You may also be required to visit our nursing team at a later date to have your stitches removed.

• Dermatologist-Led: our mole removal service is dermatologist-led, meaning that every mole removal patient is seen and treated by a trained dermatologist

• Plastic surgeon- supported: we have a team of fifteen plastic surgeons who provide support to our dermatology team for more complex removal cases or reconstructions, or in cases where the patient is particularly sensitive to scarring

• Rapid, Same-day Removal: we able to offer rapid, same day removal of worrisome moles due to our three fully staffed on-site theatres

Mohs Surgery: we are one of the few facilities in London to offer the latest, cutting-edge Mohs surgery, the optimal approach for removing skin cancers as determined by NICE (National Institute for Health & Care Excellence)

Mole removal is the most comprehensive safeguard against skin cancer and is recommended for anyone worried about their moles.

The NHS no longer delivers "non-essential" mole treatments, meaning that the majority of mole removal procedures, or the removal of skin 'lumps and bumps' (e.g. warts, verrucae and skin tags), can no longer be administered for free on the NHS.
A mole that is not believed to be life-threatening or cancerous will not generally be removed on the NHS.

For those that are considered cancerous, we recommend that all patients establish the exact length of the expected waiting list with your local NHS Trust. These are unfortunately currently subject to significant delays, due to the disruption caused by the COVID crisis

Absolutely. This is an extremely common cause for patients asking for a mole removal and our team of cosmetic specialists are more than delighted to assist

People often choose to remove moles for purely cosmetic reasons, especially if they are moles on the face which can make them feel self-conscious. Our doctors at Cadogan Clinic include highly-experienced Plastic and Cosmetic surgeons who will remove moles whilst leaving minimal scarring on your face.

Moles are common skin growths which can be flat and pigmented or protruding. They affect the appearance and people often prefer to remove them on cosmetic grounds.

In some cases, the moles can start changing in colour, shape, and size. This might be a warning sign of cancer and you should see a dermatologist immediately.

Facial moles are removed surgically after an injection of local anaesthetic to numb the area. The tissue removed is sent for pathological examination and the small skin defect is stitched up carefully. The stitches are removed after 5-7 days and the resulting line scar gradually fades with time.

 

A mole or naevus is made up of naevus cells, which extend right through the skin. Therefore, if removal is to be complete, it will leave a hole. Whichever way this heals, there will be a scar. It is our job to minimize this scar.

If the mole is tiny, leaving the hole to heal on its own, may be best. Usually, the hole is refashioned in order to allow stitching in the direction which gives the least scarring, usually in the line of skin tension, for example, the smile lines on the face. Face stitches can be removed early before they themselves cause extra scars, but elsewhere we might use buried dissolving sutures reinforced with tape to again avoid stitch marks.

If the mole is only a problem because it is raised, then sometimes they can be snipped or lasered off. Remember, however, that although the skin is now flat, half the naevus is still there. It might regrow with pigment or look like a mottled scar. This is not often acceptable on the face. Hairy moles need to be completely removed to stop regrowth of the hair from deep hair follicles. A suspicious mole that is thought could be malignant should be cut out to provide tissue for diagnosis under the microscope.

Whichever method is used, we need to keep the skin clean to avoid infection and a worse scar. Antibiotics should not be used to avoid infection, being reserved for treatment of infection.

Some areas of the body make for worse scars than others and some people are more prone to scarring. We now have a genetic test (BILHI) to determine if you are likely to get a bad scar, a keloid. The Cadogan Clinic is the first place in the UK to offer this.

There are many ways that you can reduce your risk of skin cancer.

+ Limit your exposure to UV radiation
+ Use broad-spectrum sunblock when exposed to the sun. Broad spectrum will help protect against both UVA and UVB rays
+ Use a minimum of SPF 30 in your sunblock, ensure the UVA protection is adequate as denoted by UVA and apply thickly and frequently
+ Avoid the use of sunbeds (Using sunbeds for the first time below the age of 35 increases the risk of developing melanoma by nearly 60%
+ Perform a monthly skin self-examination looking for ABCDE of moles

 ABCDE Checklist for suspicious features:

+ Asymmetry: Moles that are an irregular shape and have two different halves.
+ Border: Moles with a ragged border.
+ Colours: Moles that have a mix of two or more colours.
+ Diameter: Moles that are larger than 6mm (1/4 inch) diameter.
+ Evolution: A mole which has changed in size or shape over time.

When performing your monthly skin checks ensure you are doing it after a bath or shower, in a well-lit room, with the aid of a full-length mirror looking for any changes in moles thoroughly.

You can also self-assess yourself for risk of melanoma. The Melanoma Risk Factor Assessment checklist can tell you if you would benefit from a mole check by a dermatologist, or from more regular self-examinations.

The Melanoma Risk Factor Assessment:

+ Have you ever been sunburnt badly?
+ Does your skin burn first and then tan? Do you tan at all?
+ Do you have any outdoor hobbies?
+ Have you ever used sunbeds?
+ Have you ever lived anywhere abroad that was very hot/sunny?
+ Have you ever had a job where you worked outdoors?
+ Has anyone in your family ever had melanoma?
+ Do you wear sunblock when exposed to the sun?

If you notice any changes to a mole or a patch of skin, it is important to seek the advice of your GP or a dermatologist as soon as possible. If your regular GP has any concerns about the changes in your moles, they will refer you to a consultant dermatologist for further examination.

A dermatologist will perform a full skin examination to check all of your moles. If the dermatologist has any concerns about any unusual moles or patches of skin, they will either go on to remove (excise) the mole or take a sample of a suspicious patch of skin (biopsy) to send in for analysis.

It is important to note that not all changes to moles are the results of skin cancer. It is normal for moles to change in size, number or appearance over time, even some disappearing entirely. Hormonal changes, like those that occur with puberty or pregnancy, can also cause moles to increase in number or to become darker. 

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Will I require a single surgery or multiple surgeries?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of fat transfer procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

After your surgery, you will be asked to come in for a post-operative appointment to come back and see our nursing staff at the Clinic between 1 and 2 weeks after your surgery. At this point your incision sites will be reviewed, and your preliminary healing will be assessed.

After 6 weeks your surgeon will personally review your progress – again at the Clinic - and make sure you are recovering as expected. In addition, they will remove any stitches and advise you on the need for further dressings.
Throughout the recovery period you will have full access to our 24/7 on call nursing service, and full access to the Clinic and our post-operative facilities.

Our aim is to make you feel as comfortable as possible during the entirety of your recovery period.

As your anaesthetic or sedation wear off you will wake up in our recovery facilities at the Clinic. You may feel a little drowsy but this often wears off within a few hours. After several hours in recovery, you will eat and hydrate. At that point, you will be allowed to leave the Clinic by our nursing staff.

It is common to feel a little pain and discomfort in the immediate aftermath of surgery. This will wear off in due course. Our 24/7 on call service is open to all patients for any question or query they may have at this time.

You will not be able to drive yourself home after the surgery. You should arrange for someone to pick you up and take you home. In addition, you will need to ask someone to stay with you for the first 24 hours after your procedure.

One of the major benefits of fat transfer is that recovery is typically very swift and patients can be back at work and active very shortly after the procedure. Whilst the extent of such activity should be gradually phased in, you should be back at work within a week and exercising within two weeks.

We always advise that you return to low impact activities first like walking and cycling before you are able to reintroduce more strenuous activity such as lifting heavy weights and doing intense aerobic activities.

Final results are typically first seen six or so weeks after your procedure, with ongoing improvements beyond this point likely as the healing process fully completes over the coming 12 to 18 months.

Your surgeon will be able to give you specific guidance at your consultation.

Certain lifestyle factors can increase the risk of complications during and after your surgery. These include smoking, drinking alcohol, being overweight and taking drugs (for medical or recreational use.)

The most common impact of smoking before your surgery is that it increases your chances of developing an infection and inhibits your body's natural healing processes. We insist that all patients stop smoking and using nicotine products at least six weeks before surgery. Reducing alcohol intake is also strongly advised. This is particularly important for fat grafting surgery in which the fat's viability post-procedure is materially reduced in a smoker population.

Your doctor will discuss your current BMI and drug use at your consultation and advise you further on this.

Between 50–70% of the transferred fat is retained long term, with final results visible by 6–12 weeks once the swelling subsides and non-viable fat is reabsorbed. The procedure may be repeated at 3-monthly intervals to achieve the desired volume increase.

Autologous fat transfer is a technical term for fat transfer surgery. Autologous fat transfer simply means that the organic fat material is harvested from the same individual into which it is transferred.

All fat transfer surgery techniques are therefore by definition autologous fat transfer procedures.

Not only is the fat relatively easy to harvest via liposuction, but the transferred fat is biocompatible, non-allergenic, non-toxic and relatively easy to obtain in meaningful volumes.

More recently surgeons have used the therapeutic and rejuvenating benefits of fat grafting in the healing of wounds and scars, as well as fat's ability to repair damage to breast tissue following radiation treatment.

The rejuvenative effects are due to the high concentration of mesenchymal cells present in the fat tissue.

This natural 'autologous' resource is therefore readily accepted in the treatment area, is easily topped up and can provide additional rejuvenating benefits.

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Can I have my combination procedure as a single surgery?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of mummy makeover procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

After your surgery, you will be asked to come in for a post-operative appointment to come back and see our nursing staff at the Clinic between 1 and 2 weeks after your surgery. At this point your incision sites will be reviewed, and your preliminary healing will be assessed.

After 6 weeks your surgeon will personally review your progress – again at the Clinic - and make sure you are recovering as expected. In addition, they will remove any stitches and advise you on the need for further dressings.

Throughout the recovery period you will have full access to our 24/7 on call nursing service, and full access to the Clinic and our post-operative facilities.

Our aim is to make you feel as comfortable as possible during the entirety of your recovery period.

As your anaesthetic or sedation wear off you will wake up in our recovery facilities at the Clinic. You may feel a little drowsy but this often wears off within a few hours. After several hours in recovery, you will eat and hydrate. At that point, you will be allowed to leave the Clinic by our nursing staff.

It is common to feel a little pain and discomfort in the immediate aftermath of surgery. This will wear off in due course. Our 24/7 on call service is open to all patients for any question or query they may have at this time.

You will not be able to drive yourself home after the surgery. You should arrange for someone to pick you up and take you home. In addition, you will need to ask someone to stay with you for the first 24 hours after your procedure.

As each procedure in the mummy makeover is different, the recovery times for each varies too. The amount of time you will need to take off work will also depend on the type of job you have; inevitably, administrative jobs will be more swiftly resumed than occupations that require more strenuous activity.

Likewise, you will be able to return to low impact activities like walking and cycling before you are able to reintroduce lifting heavy weights and doing intense aerobic activities. In general we recommend at least three weeks off work, and eight weeks off exercise.

Final results are typically first seen six or so weeks after your procedure, with ongoing improvements beyond this point likely as the healing process fully completes over the coming 12 to 18 months.

Your surgeon will be able to give you specific guidance at your consultation, once the precise combination of procedures is understood.

Certain lifestyle factors can increase the risk of complications during and after your surgery. These include smoking, drinking alcohol, being overweight and taking drugs (for medical or recreational use.)

The most common impact of smoking before your surgery is that it increases your chances of developing an infection and inhibits your body's natural healing processes. We insist that all patients stop smoking and using nicotine products at least six weeks before surgery. Reducing alcohol intake is also strongly advised.

Your doctor will discuss your current BMI and drug use at your consultation and advise you further on this.

The results of the procedure will last for many years but are not fully permanent. This is because the body continues to change shape as we age, and skin elasticity continues to deteriorate. The results will be meaningful and last a number of years, but will not be completely permanent.

We do not recommend having a mummy makeover if you plan to get pregnant again, as this will materially impact any results achieved. We also recommend that any significant weight loss occurs before surgery and not afterwards.

This is because excessive weight loss can negatively impact your results by leaving excess, inelastic skin in treated areas.

Tummy tuck surgery is a stomach tightening and stomach reduction procedure designed to remove extra skin, scars, stretch marks and fat from the tummy, and sometimes to tighten the tummy muscles.

Tummy tuck surgery is far more at achieving this than simply losing weight and exercising, and is the only option that delivers a stomach tightening effect, a tightening of the underlying muscles and an overall stomach reduction.

For some younger patients, liposuction (where fat is sucked out through a tube inserted into small cuts) can also help. This can be done on its own, or with a tummy tuck.

The abdominal reduction or "tummy tuck" is a surgical procedure to tighten the skin of the abdominal wall, frequently performed following childbirth and weight loss.

Plumper patients will require liposuction to reduce the fat following the procedure and, where the muscles are stretched, some tightening of the fascia that holds them together will be required.

There are four main different abdominoplasty procedures:
- The Cadogan Clinic Brazilian tummy tuck.
- Mini or partial abdominoplasty.
- Full Abdominoplasty or traditional tummy tuck is now obsolete at the Cadogan Clinic.
- Cadogan Caesar Correction (CCS) - post C-section scar revision

There are other techniques used in particular situations and these are described elsewhere on this website.

As the name suggests, this is a lesser procedure than the Full or Brazilian Abdominoplasty and is designed to treat a lesser problem. A mini-abdominoplasty focuses on rejuvenating the abdominal wall below the umbilicus (tummy button), the area most commonly affected by pregnancy.

The procedure consists of liposuction of as much of the abdominal wall as is required and excision of surplus skin. Frequently, the recti muscles will need to be tightened to give a taut, flat tummy. Unlike the Brazilian or full abdominoplasty, the umbilicus (tummy button) is not moved and is therefore unscarred.

There is only a single scar running across the lower abdomen. The longer the scar, the more skin is removed and the tighter it is. Very often it is not much longer than a caesarian section scar and easily hidden. We should remember that transverse scars are of better quality than vertical ones. This scar can be kept low through the pubic hair. In this case, the skin removed can include pubic hair extending upwards towards the tummy button. The downside is that patients who tend to make bad scars may form keloid scars where the incision passes through hair follicles.

The mini-abdominoplasty is particularly appropriate for patients who have had a caesarian section, and are left with a fold of skin above the scar visible through clothing.

The mini-abdominoplasty can be carried out under Local or General Anesthesia as a day case without drains.

A Brazilian abdominoplasty – or Brazilian tummy tuck – is similar to the traditional abdominoplasty technique, in that the same amount of surplus skin is removed and the tummy button or umbilicus is repositioned; however, all the undermining is achieved by very careful liposuction, avoiding cutting blood vessels and nerves. This procedure therefore avoids multiple drains and can very often be carried out as a day case.

The full abdominoplasty is the traditional Tummy Tuck or Abdominal Reduction. At the Cadogan Clinic, we consider it to be obsolete. It is, however, the common procedure carried out countrywide to remove excess skin and fat. All the skin and underlying fat of the abdominal wall from the umbilicus (tummy button) is removed allowing the muscles beneath to be tightened. The skin of the upper abdomen is freed up as far as the ribs and pulled down and stitched leaving a long scar across the lower part of the abdomen to be hidden beneath panties or bikini. The freed-up tummy button is brought through at the appropriate level.

This is a big procedure requiring several nights in a hospital and, because of the undermining (freeing up) of all the skin and soft tissues of the abdominal wall, carries risks of blood and serum collecting under the wound. This issue is solved to some degree by using multiple drains, which remain in place for some days. These drains are uncomfortable, inconvenient and only partially reduce these risks.  This is the traditional Abdominoplasty.

At the Cadogan Clinic, we can produce a tight, slim contoured abdomen without using drains and allowing patients to walk out of the clinic the same day. The risk of blood and serum collecting under the wound is small. The key is liposuction used both to thin and contour the abdomen, but also to mobilize the skin without cutting its blood supply.

There are three main candidates of people who require tummy tucks.

People with good skin elasticity - no loosening inside the abdominal walls and only sub-dermal fat accumulation that they want to have removed. Often times it is possible to achieve the desired results for these patients using liposuction or laser liposuction.

People whose skin elasticity is intact, but they have an enlarged abdominal wall. For these patients, the desired result is obtained by making an incision of 3 to 4 cm and entering to do an endoscopy in order to repair the abdomen wall.

People with loose and sagging skin. For these patients, it is necessary to remove the loose skin and then repair the deformed muscles.

A tummy tuck operation may be required for various reasons when patients have a deformation in their abdomen. This operation is often needed for women who gain and lose large amounts of weight frequently during and after pregnancies.

There are several ways to perform a tummy tuck, and your surgeon will determine during your consultation what the best method of surgery is for your case. If your skin is fairly tight, without too much sagging, then an endoscopic tummy tuck may be all that is needed. This can be performed with an endoscope just by narrowing the abdominal wall from the inside. For patients with excess loose and sagging skin, a mini tummy tuck will be enough for the lower parts of the tummy. If there is a hernia in the abdomen, then it will be necessary to perform a full tummy tuck.

People have this surgery to take away extra skin and fat, or get a flatter tummy, often after pregnancy or gaining and losing weight. It can help re-join the muscles of the abdominal wall if they have been pulled apart in the middle (known as ‘divarification of the recti’). Stretch marks can sometimes be cut away or tightened to make them less obvious. Ideally, your weight will be normal before the surgery. A tummy tuck is not for people who are very overweight, or carried out in order to lose weight. For the right person, a tummy tuck can make a big difference to their confidence and quality of life.

Love handles, or back fat, are excess fatty deposits that develop at the waistline

What causes back fat and love handles varies between person to person, with factors prompting the development of love handles including genetics, diet, exercise and age.

Tummy tuck surgery is perfectly designed to eliminate these love handles, particularly when combined with the stomach tightening and fat reduction effects of liposuction.

As with all surgical procedures generally,  patients must abstain from taking blood thinners, limit drinking alcohol and smoking as much as possible and ideally, stop altogether in the last couple of days preceding surgery.

The tummy tuck operation is best undertaken after pregnancy if possible. So if you are planning to have more children, it may be best to wait until afterwards to have a tummy tuck. There are no upper age limits in this surgery. It is possible to operate on people who are healthy and take good care of themselves, at any age.

Breast augmentation surgery is a surgical procedure to expand the size of the breast. Breast enlargement surgery involves the placement of breast implants into the breast region either above or below the breast muscle.

An alternative breast enlargement surgery is fat transfer breast enlargement. This involves fat injections into the breasts, after fat has been grafted via liposuction from elsewhere in the body.

Breast augmentation surgery is usually performed as a general anaesthetic as a day case procedure, i.e. coming in and out of the hospital the same day.

The site of the incision: 

There are various places where the incision (scar) can be placed. The most common and safest is the inferior mammary fold or IMF. This is where the wire from the underwired bra sits. Alternative incisions are the peri-areolar (around the nipple) or axillary (armpit). The size of the scar will range from approximately 5-6cm depending on the increasing size of implant.

The types of stitches/sutures:

All sutures are placed below the skin and are dissolved by the body over the course of a few weeks. Nothing needs to be pulled out/removed. Often surgeons will seal the wound with tissue glue, to limit the risk of superficial wound infection from the normal bugs we have on our skin. This glue peels off over 1-2 weeks.

Shapes of implants:

There are three shapes available, round, anatomical (tear drop) and conical. All three come in a range of increasing sizes of base diameters, i.e. how broad an implant is.

Profiles of implants:

For each base of an implant there are 4 different profiles. These are low, medium, high and extra high profile. This is simply a term used to describe the edge or “take off” of the implant. Low profile is a softer, subtler edge (a more “natural look”) and, to the other opposite end of the spectrum, an extra high profile has a steeper edge to the implant, resulting in lots of cleavage (“false look”).

Volume of implant versus cup size:

You choose a volume of implant with your surgeon. You do not choose a cup size. The reason for this is that there is no standard cup size.

Asymmetry:

Most women have some form of minor breast asymmetry. One side may differ from the other in volume, position of the nipple or shape of the chest wall. This is entirely normal. Your surgeon will try to adjust this as best he/she can during the procedure, but if minor differences still remain after the operation, we accept that it is within normal limits.

Where the implant is positioned:

There are two basic areas where implants are placed: above or below the Pectoralis major muscle. Where they are placed depends on your preference, your anatomy and what the surgeon feels is best for you.

For many women, the size and shape of their breasts can cause unhappiness and insecurity. Breast enlargement can provide a safe and convenient solution, restoring confidence to thousands of women each year.

Whatever your personal reasons, Breast Augmentation at the Cadogan Clinic will provide the leading UK consultants, techniques and facilities for your treatment. Our expert team is acutely aware that the appearance of your body can affect your confidence and everyday happiness, and as such we handle each case with sensitivity and discretion.

Several key factors contribute toward achieving natural-looking results from breast augmentation surgery.

First and foremost an experienced, qualified cosmetic surgeon is required who possesses the skills and deep expertise in the procedure to carry it out in accordance with best practice principles, as well as tailor it to your personal wishes and requirements. Whilst the procedure itself is regarded as relatively straightforward surgically speaking, the very best results can only be achieved when the procedure is tailored to each individual’s circumstance and condition.

In the first place, the right implant must be chosen to suit your body shape, size, as well as your personal hopes for the overall results of the operation. This involves a selection of an implant comprising the right material (our surgeons typically recommend FDA-approved Sebbin implants for the most ‘natural’ look), right shape (round, anatomical or teardrop, or conical), right size and volume, and right profile.

For each implant there are 4 different profiles, ranging from ‘low’ to ‘extra high’, referring to the edge of the implant where it meets the chest. A low profile will deliver a softer, subtler, ‘more natural’ effect as compared to an extra high profile which has a steeper edge to the implant resulting in a ‘falser’ look and greater cleavage.

A further complexity relates to the actual location of the implant in the chest.

There are two basic areas where implants are placed: above or below the pectoralis major muscle. Where they are placed depends on your preference, your anatomy and what the surgeon feels is best for you, but can have a significant impact on the naturalness of results. Your expert surgeon will once again help you make the right choice for you.

A final, vital stage impacting results is the level and quality of the post-surgical aftercare. How you act and behave in the immediate weeks after your operation can make a significant impact on the results you achieve. For example, wearing the right supportive bra will sustain the breasts in the right, natural breast position as well as avoid unduly rubbing settling scars. Some activities such as going to the gym, aerobics and sports that use your arms will need to be avoided for a short period of time, whilst you should take care when lifting your elbows above your shoulders (e.g. washing your hair etc) to avoid the implant from turning, leading to an unnatural result that may require more surgery.

Our expert team of nurses and surgeons will ensure that you get the right advice following your procedure in order to optimize your results, as well as give you access to one of London’s leading scar minimization and prevention units who have designed bespoke moisturisation and massaging systems to ensure scars fade as best as possible.

Our surgeons typically aim for natural breasts when it comes to breast enlargement surgery, unless otherwise specified by you.

Natural breasts can be achieved by selecting the right implant size and shape for you and your existing anatomy. Natural breasts can also be achieved by selecting the right position (above or below the muscle) for the implant. Your surgeon will provide his or her recommendation.

In addition, we also offer advanced fat transfer breast enlargement procedures that employ fat injections into the breast in order to transfer fat to the breast region and deliver more natural breast contours. This can be performed in conjunction with breast implants or as standalone breast augmentation surgery to naturally increase the breast size.

There are several different types of implant used in breast enhancement surgery. The main distinction is between saline and silicone implants. There are also textured and smooth implants.

The external appearance of these different types of implant are broadly similar regardless of material. Silicone implants remain the most commonly used implant material in the UK due to silicone’s preferred properties as the safest, most inert of prosthetic materials and slightly more natural feel following procedure.

We only use the very best breast implants for breast enhancement at the Cadogan Clinic and safety is of utmost importance to us. Your surgeon will explain the various different types of implant available to you at your breast enhancement consultation, and will give an informed, expert view at your consultation as to the optimal material, brand, size and shape of implant for your particular body shape and type, in light of the results you are hoping to achieve

We have never used PIP implants and continue to only use FDA-approved materials in all of our procedures.

Breast reduction surgery is usually performed under general anaesthetic as a day case procedure, meaning advanced sedation techniques are employed to enable you to recover more quickly after surgery and return home on the day of your breast reduction surgery.

Whilst there are several breast reduction surgery techniques, each essentially involves reducing a proportion of the breast volume via excision and reshaping the breast mound such that the nipple is lifted into a more normal position, while preserving the blood supply to the elevated nipple and areolar complex. The overall effect is a more ‘pert’ breast hanging in a more regular position.

Your surgeon will explain his or her preferred breast reduction surgery technique at your consultation and where the incision is to be placed accordingly.

Different surgeons have different protocols, but it is common for a garment to be worn in the immediate post operative phase. The wounds are generally closed with stitches under the surface, which then dissolve over a few weeks. You may have a strip dressing or reinforcement paper strips over or along the wound. There may also be gauze and stretchy Mefix paper dressing covering the wound and also supporting the breasts.

A compression garment is then generally worn to support the breasts and protect the wounds. Although some surgeons do not use them at all and recommend a sports bra instead, it is most common to wear a lycra compression bra made specifically for breast surgery of which there are many types. The team will fit the one most suitable for you and your surgery. There is one other lycra dressing, occasionally required, and that is a stretchy strap worn across the upper breast to hold the implant low.

The sports bras or lycra garments will be worn day and night for 3 weeks or more and then during the day for a longer time, particularly during exercise or sporting activity.

How well a person heals post surgery is dependent on each individual. As an incision has occurred most commonly in a discreet location under the breast, there will be some element of scarring in all patients. There are various incisions used to place implants in the breast.

  1. The inframammary incision – in the breast fold – usually 4-5cms in length, this is probably the most commonly used one.

  2. Circumareolar – around the nipple.

  3. Axillary – in the armpit.

Immediately post surgery you will visit our aftercare and scar minimisation department. During these follow-up appointments, our team of specialist nurses will keep an eye on your progress to make sure that you are healing properly and there is no infection. Also during this appointment our team will go through the techniques they have developed to reduce the appearance of any scars.

This is a combination of massage and moisturising.

Massage/moisturise
Treat the whole breast, including scar. Use the palm of your hand in a gentle circular movement, using a moisturising cream we recommend (heal gel) or (kelocote) which you can buy at Cadogan Clinic Shop. This helps to soften your skin, adjacent tissue, and adjust to its new contour.

Scarring and Other Breast Procedures
Different types of scarring can occur during different procedures. Following a mastopexy (i.e. breast lift), scars can occur on the breast itself, as during the procedure excess skin and flesh is being removed.

In procedures such as a natural breast augmentation scarring is less common, as fat is being injected to create additional volume rather than excisions being used.

Breast augmentation recovery time is relatively swift, and you will usually feel your normal self within a week. After one week you can return to work if you have a desk job, but it may be longer for more active occupations.

You should expect to be off heavylifting, gym, steam and sauna for 6 weeks, and be wearing your compression garment 24/7 for 6 weeks minimum also.

Breast augmentation recovery stages tend to be fairly predictable between patients, and significant variation from this schedule is unlikely.

Breast augmentation recovery time is reduced when the procedure is performed as a day case at the Cadogan Clinic, due to the advanced sedation techniques that allow for quicker initial recovery.

The aim of breast augmentation surgery is to make the breast implant look as natural as possible, so the position of the implant is important and does matter.

This will be confirmed by surgeon at your breast augmentation surgery consultation following an assessment of several different factors including your existing anatomy and physique, whether you have plans to breast feed or not, and the amount and quality of your existing breast tissue.

Breast implants do not have an expiration date. They only need to be replaced in the very rare case in which they break or rupture, usually a result of the use of sub-standard implants or sub-standard surgery. This is not serious or a health risk, but may cause a change in shape or feel of the implant necessitating its removal.

Other causes for replacement include infection which occurs in about 1-2% of cases, usually within the first 10 days of surgery, capsule formation, occurring in about 10% of individuals and involving the straightforward removal of a fibrous layer that the body forms around the implant making it hardened and unnatural to the touch, and implant rippling, most commonly occurring among people with little breast tissue and thin skin. Additionally, some patients decide in time that they want they the implant replaced or removed for cosmetic reasons like wanting to go bigger, smaller or completely natural.

Cadogan Clinic has become a well-known provider of implant replacement services as our reputation as a trusted cosmetics provider has been enhanced following the PIP scandal that implicated so many of our competitors. It remains one of our most commonly performed procedures.

Breast enlargement surgery is a popular procedure and generally very safe. That said, as with all surgery, there are risks with breast enlargement surgery that you need to be aware of.

The best means of mitigating risks is to ensure that your surgeon is properly qualified and highly experienced in breast enlargement surgery, and we ensure this is the case with all of our patients by only choosing to work with the very best surgeons.

Choice of a high quality implant is also crucial, and again, we only work with FDA-approved implants at the Cadogan Clinic.

Typical risks include, but are not limited to:

  • Asymmetrical breasts
  • Haematoma/bleeding
  • Capsular contracture
  • Implant moving
  • Rippling
  • Nipple sensation / numbness
  • Rupture
  • Infection

As a standalone specialist plastic surgery day case unit only admitting healthy, elective patients the risk of cross – infection are significantly reduced at the Cadogan Clinic in contrast with competitors who utilise general hospitals

Breast implants are safe and we only use the best breast implants available on the market. That said, breast augmentation surgery is not without its risk and we recommend you read our FAQ on this question.

Your surgeon will also discuss risks in full at your breast enhancement consultation.  

Tubular breasts or tuberous breasts are breasts that are more conical in shape than round. These are considered a congenital abnormality related to the tissue of the breast, and can be corrected via breast surgery.

This is not a common condition, but one that can be effectively addressed via breast enlargement surgery. 

The Cadogan Clinic does accept breast enlargement finance but we do not currently offer it ourselves. Speak to one of our advisors who can direct you to a cost effective third party high street provider.

Finance for breast implants is simple and straightforward to organise, and regularly chosen by our patients.

You can see breast implant before and afters in our before and after carousel on this page. Alternatively, your consultant can show you extensive examples of their surgery results at your initial consultation.

We feel this is the best way to understand the types of outcome you might be able to expect following surgery.

Rhinoplasty, or a nose job, is nose surgery designed to address aesthetic and functional issues relating to the variety of different nose shapes.

Nose shapes vary between individuals. Different nose shapes addressed by nose surgery include:

- Large noses, nose tips or nostrils
- Long noses, nose tips or nostrils
- Asymmetrical noses, nose tips or nostrils
- Bridged noses or bumpy noses
- Deviated septums

The nose is the central feature of the face and can define the overall balance of the appearance. Nose surgery is able to address a variety of concerns via the technique’s nose contouring and nose reduction properties.

There are five types of nose operation that we offer at the Cadogan Clinic.

Closed Rhinoplasty - the most common type of nose operation. There are no external scars, as all incisions are done inside the nose. The soft tissues are lifted slightly upward, allowing access to the bone and cartilage. Closed rhinoplasty involves reduced nasal tissue irritation, less detectable scarring, shorter operating times and faster recovery.

Open Rhinoplasty - a more invasive nose operation widely used for patients who need more extensive nose contouring or nose reduction Your surgeon will make incisions in the columella, which is the skin between your nostrils beneath your nose. Following the incisions, the skin is lifted up allowing access inside the nasal cavity for your surgeon to perform reshaping. After the surgery is complete, the columella is sutured and the nose will be secured in place with tape and a splint to keep the nose in place. The splint will keep the nose in place during the healing process and normally will be removed after one week. Open rhinoplasty is excellent for patients with issues such as genetic or structural deformities, trauma to the nose requiring grafting and unsatisfactory results from a previous nose job.

Septo-Rhinoplasty – a septo-rhinoplasty is commonly done to improve the way you breathe through your nose. This is often done for patients who suffer from a deviated septum. The septum is the cartilage and bone inside your nose that divides the nostrils. Your surgeon will make an incision in the mucosa (the lining inside your nose), and lift it off the bone and cartilage in order to remove any parts that are bent, putting them into a straight position allowing for clear breathing. This procedure will improve the way you breathe, and the appearance of your nose can be adjusted as well.

Rhino-tip Surgery - Rhino-tip surgery is done to change the shape of the nose by modifying the structure of the underlying cartilage. Most alterations are done from inside the nose so as to minimize any scarring. Your surgeon can create the perfect tip for your nose structure. Typical conditions include a big or crooked nose tip, flared nostrils or a hooked tip

Non-Surgical Rhinoplasty - another very common form of rhinoplasty. It is non-surgical and non-invasive and involves an injectable filler being used to correct very minor imperfections. This is a popular choice for clients who need minimal changes to the shape of their nose. Keep in mind that over time the filler will begin to dissolve and you may need further treatments.

Our skin begins to sag with the regression of the cheek bone arches and jaw bone, which happens as a natural part of the ageing process.

The Micro-Facelift is ideal for people aged between 35-50 years who are experiencing a slight degree of sagging around the mid-face but don't require a full face lift surgery. The procedure is not suitable for patients who have an excessive level of sagging or those who have poor skin elasticity.

The surgeon enters the face through a tiny incision and proceeds to move the sub-dermal tissue to its original position and suture. It is a pain free procedure that delivers natural results without scaring.

The Micro-Facelift can be carried out under sedation with local anaesthetic, taking between 20-45minutes to perform, dependent on the area being treated and the level of sagging. It’s a very simple procedure that requires very little recovery time, and gives you a rejuvenated look of 3-5 years younger. 

There are many advantages of a Micro-Facelift.

+ The Micro-Facelift can be performed with sedation and local anaesthetic.
+ With a Micro-Facelift the healing process is accelerated.
+ It is a short procedure that takes up to 45 minutes to perform.
+ It is pain-free and scar free.
+ Fat injections can also be administered in conjunction with a Micro-Facelift to enhance the natural results and optimise volume.
+ You will leave looking instantly 3-5 years younger, without looking overdone or windblown.
+ You will have results that last up to 4 years, depending of course on the natural ageing process and if you follow your surgeon’s aftercare recommendations.

Patients are able to return to a normal routine 3-4 days after a Micro-Facelift procedure. The full healing process is between 7-14 days. You will have some bruising and swelling, but it will be gone after a few days and you’ll be able to get back to your normal routine.

It's important to discuss medication with your surgeon prior to any surgical procedure. Patients should cease taking aspirin or blood thinners three weeks prior to a Micro-Facelift procedure,

Patients are able to return home a few hours following the Micro-Facelift procedure and will not require an overnight stay. It is normal to expect a little swelling in the area over the first couple of days. Patients may wash the face and begin moisturising and applying anti-bruise cream the day after surgery.

The Micro-Facelift procedure restores the facial tissues to their original position so does not alter the facial expressions. Patients will look like a more youthful version of themselves, with natural results.

The Micro-Facelift may be performed in conjunction with other procedures such as a blepharoplasty (eye lid procedure), a neck lift or fat injections. Your surgeon will recommend what procedures you should have depending on what your desired results are. The best way to find out how to achieve your results is to book a consultation at our clinic today.

The Micro-Facelift is not a very painful procedure. Our surgeons are experts at making sure that the least amount of discomfort is caused, if any. There may be some discomfort behind the ears following a Micro-Facelift procedure, which is standard pain and not at all overwhelming. Any pain can be managed with painkillers and there is no lasting pain associated with the procedure.

The unique approach to the Mini-Facelift means patients look naturally 10 to 12 years younger without changing their expression. Rather than "lifting" the skin, the problem is solved by transforming the subdermal tissues to their original places.

Mini-Lift surgery is an operation performed in a hospital environment, without the need of general anaesthesia, but instead under sedation and local anaesthesia. Mini-Lift surgery takes around 1 to 1.5 hours with incisions inside and at the back of the ear. It can be performed in conjunction with other operations, for example eye lid surgery or injectables, depending on the patient's requirements.

You may work from home the next day, but it will depend on how sensitive you are to the detection of recent surgery, as to when you go out to meet people. Some will manage the next day. A few wait until sutures are removed. The point is that you will not be jeopardising the result by going out.

A Mini-Facelift gives a moderate improvement with minimal inconvenience, scars and risk.

As such it can be suitable for anyone, but a particular indication is for younger patients with relatively early signs of ageing, who find this difficult to put up with and are prepared to accept that they will need further surgery later on. Meanwhile, they will probably use lasers, peels and creams to prolong the surgery free period.

This is a change of approach. Only a short time ago, we advised patients to wait until they really could not put up with signs of ageing and then, at an older age, have a full facelift. The patient would be delighted with the dramatic improvement and would be unlikely to require any further surgery. Now patients are generally not looking for a major change, but just not to grow old.

The mini facelift is part of a maintenance programme and is often combined with fat grafting (lipofilling) to replace lost volume and stem cell treatments to improve overall tissue and skin quality. Lasers and peels all have their place.

There are many other anti-ageing solutions available, both surgical and non-surgical. Request a call from one of our patient advisors or book a consultation at the Cadogan Clinic if you would like to discuss your concerns in more detail.

We are a family owned and run Clinic founded in 2008, by Mr Bryan Mayou, a pioneering plastic surgeon best known for introducing liposuction to the UK and for establishing several of the county's earliest cosmetic laser units. Three approaches allow us to stand apart from the country’s commercial healthcare chains.

We provide leading healthcare in a discreet setting – we replicate the best of London's exceptional hospitals on a boutique scale. As we invite only the leading consultants to practice here, you can always be assured of seeing one of the country's top specialists in a family-owned setting

We provide holistic care, tailored for each patient – we were created as an antidote to fragmented private healthcare, taking responsibility for your worries in their totality so many of our patients and their families are patients for life across a range of disciplines. We bring together multi-disciplines in-house with consultants working collaboratively on your treatment plan and many of our patients have been We have onsite operating theatres, diagnostic facilities and a laser suite to ensure all your care can take place under one roof.

We offer Doctor-led innovation – as a consultant-owed and led clinic we are best placed to introduce the latest evidence-based technologies. We have pioneered many surgical and laser treatments, and were the first day-case only cosmetic surgery provider in the country. We remain a Centre-of-Excellence, supported by ongoing surgical training and clinical research programmes. 

We have plastic surgeons and dermatologists available six days a week so please call 0207 901 8500 for urgent appointments and we will do our best to fit you in.

Yes, we are recognised by all the major insurance companies. We cannot accept Aviva patients at the present time.

Day case treatment was popularised in the United States and the Cadogan Clinic was one of the earliest pioneers in the UK in 2008. Benefits include:

- Reduced disruption to your work and family life as recovery times are faster
- Benefit of recovering in familiar, more comfortable surroundings of your own home
- Reduced risk of infection as the possibility of hospital cross-infection eliminated
- Significant financial savings due to reduced use of hospital facilities
- Bespoke post-treatment patient care via dedicated patient liaison team
- Reduced waiting times and delays for treatments
- Day case surgery is associated with the same low complication rates as in-patient alternatives

Day case treatment was popularised in the United States and the Cadogan Clinic was one of the earliest pioneers in the UK in 2008. Benefits include:

- Reduced disruption to your work and family life as recovery times are faster
- Benefit of recovering in familiar, more comfortable surroundings of your own home
- Reduced risk of infection as the possibility of hospital cross-infection eliminated
- Significant financial savings due to reduced use of hospital facilities
- Bespoke post-treatment patient care via dedicated patient liaison team
- Reduced waiting times and delays for treatments
- Day case surgery is associated with the same low complication rates as in-patient alternatives

Day case treatment was popularised in the United States and the Cadogan Clinic was one of the earliest pioneers in the UK in 2008. Benefits include:

- Reduced disruption to your work and family life as recovery times are faster
- Benefit of recovering in familiar, more comfortable surroundings of your own home
- Reduced risk of infection as the possibility of hospital cross-infection eliminated
- Significant financial savings due to reduced use of hospital facilities
- Bespoke post-treatment patient care via dedicated patient liaison team
- Reduced waiting times and delays for treatments
- Day case surgery is associated with the same low complication rates as in-patient alternatives

Day case treatment was popularised in the United States and the Cadogan Clinic was one of the earliest pioneers in the UK in 2008. Benefits include:

- Reduced disruption to your work and family life as recovery times are faster
- Benefit of recovering in familiar, more comfortable surroundings of your own home
- Reduced risk of infection as the possibility of hospital cross-infection eliminated
- Significant financial savings due to reduced use of hospital facilities
- Bespoke post-treatment patient care via dedicated patient liaison team
- Reduced waiting times and delays for treatments
- Day case surgery is associated with the same low complication rates as in-patient alternatives

Day case treatment was popularised in the United States and the Cadogan Clinic was one of the earliest pioneers in the UK in 2008. Benefits include:

- Reduced disruption to your work and family life as recovery times are faster
- Benefit of recovering in familiar, more comfortable surroundings of your own home
- Reduced risk of infection as the possibility of hospital cross-infection eliminated
- Significant financial savings due to reduced use of hospital facilities
- Bespoke post-treatment patient care via dedicated patient liaison team
- Reduced waiting times and delays for treatments
- Day case surgery is associated with the same low complication rates as in-patient alternatives

Day case treatment was popularised in the United States and the Cadogan Clinic was one of the earliest pioneers in the UK in 2008. Benefits include:

- Reduced disruption to your work and family life as recovery times are faster
- Benefit of recovering in familiar, more comfortable surroundings of your own home
- Reduced risk of infection as the possibility of hospital cross-infection eliminated
- Significant financial savings due to reduced use of hospital facilities
- Bespoke post-treatment patient care via dedicated patient liaison team
- Reduced waiting times and delays for treatments
- Day case surgery is associated with the same low complication rates as in-patient alternatives

It is not necessary for the procedure to take place in a hospital. It can safely be applied in a clinic with experienced and expert teams.  

Treatment is recommended when you have a hernia that is causing you symptoms of pain, severe or worsening symptoms, and when serious complications occur.

Serious complications that require immediate medical attention at a hospital include:

+ Obstruction: Hernias can normally be reduced back into the abdominal cavity, however when the bowel becomes stuck back into the inguinal canal problems arise. Symptoms can include increasing pain, nausea, vomiting and a very tender lump in your groin area.

+ Strangulation: If the obstruction is allowed to remain, then eventually the blood supply is cut off due to due to a trapped section of bowel. This requires immediate medical intervention to release the trapped tissue before the bowel dies.

At Cadogan Clinic we repair hernias through open surgery, where an incision is made which allows the surgeon to push the lump back into the abdomen. This is always performed as a day case procedure. You will be able to return to your daily activities within a few days and should be fully recovered within a month.

Hernia repair and hernia removal are routine surgeries that have very few risks. It is possible that even after hernia surgery, the hernia can return.

Other complications are unusual, but you should know:

+ There will be some swelling and bruising in the testicles or at the base of the penis for men.
+ Numbness or discomfort in the groin area if a nerve becomes trapped or damaged during surgery.

Depending on the type of hernia you have, and the surgical treatment required, you will be able to go home the same day of the surgery. You should be able to return to your daily activities within a few days of surgery and should have a full recovery within a month. Your surgeon will prescribe you painkillers for any pain and discomfort you may have.

The amount of pain involved with having a tattoo removed is comparable to that of having it put on. It’s described as a feeling of having a rubber band snapped against the skin or having hot bacon fat splatter on your skin. Typically, patients can handle the discomfort without local anaesthetic cream or pain killers. Both are however available.

We understand that you wish to have your skin remain as natural as possible following a tattoo removal. With our advanced PicoSure Laser, it is very uncommon for patients to have any scarring. If you already had scar tissue from the tattoo, then expect that scar to remain. You should note that other lasers may leave scarring.

During the initial tattoo removal consultation, you can run your hand over the tattooed surface and feel if there is any scarring. Any raised areas are scars, and those will remain after the tattoo has been removed, because the tattoo removal only breaks down the pigment of the ink, not scars.

It’s important to use proper aftercare following treatment so as to limit any possibility of scars. This includes allowing any scabs and blisters to remain until they are fully healed and fall off on their own. Do not pick at the area.

There may be a higher chance of keloid scars in patients with a history of keloids, so it’s important to share your medical history with the medical practitioner performing your session. 

There are some minor side effects that occur with Laser Tattoo removal, and you may want to take it easy for the day immediately following the treatment as you may have increased sensitivity. Depending on the area being treated, these side effects may be more bothersome in the first few days.

The most common side effects include:

+ Tenderness
+ Redness
+ Swelling
+ Blistering
+ Scabbing
+ Bruising
+ Hyperpigmentation or Hypopigmentation

All side effects should fade within a few days to a week following the surgery. It’s important to follow the aftercare instructions given to you by your practitioner in order to reduce symptoms of side effects. 

Laser tattoo removal works by delivering laser energy to target the carbon particles or dyes in the skin, allowing selective destruction of the foreign pigment while minimising damage to the surrounding skin. The laser breaks the ink down into tiny particles, that are then disposed of by your body’s natural immune system. Lasers may be used on all tattoo types such as professional, amateur, cosmetic, medicinal and traumatic tattoos.

We use different wavelengths of laser light to treat the different colours of ink in your tattoo. Black fades the quickest, and certain colours can be more stubborn, but we do offer targeted wavelengths for different colours. Your practitioner will go over all that with you in the consultation depending on your individual case.

You will see immediate results after your first session, and depending on the various colours, it will take multiple sessions to fully remove your tattoo. 

As with all surgical procedures, your consultant will review your medication and make recommendations, such as refraining from taking blood thinners.

The paper bands which are fitted post-surgery should be kept in place for 4-5 days to ensure the nose keeps its new shape. Patients should be vigilant to avoid any impact to the nose. Patients should also refrain from taking blood thinning medication and avoid any food which may cause an allergic reaction.

Because there is no intervention with the bones and due to the fact that the operation is very short, nose suspension is a painless procedure. Any pain that may arise is easily controlled with pain killers.

Tiny holes are made with injections rather than incisions so the patient is left without any scarring.

It is recommended that patients are a least 18 years of age before undergoing nose suspension. As with all surgical procedures, it is advised that patients have finished developing.

No bones are broken during a nose suspension procedure. The reshaping of the nose is achieved through lifting the tip of the nose with double tipped needles and securing with special surgical thread. The technique can be likened to plastering a broken bone where the nasal tissue is supported against gravity until it clings into place.

The nose will be fully set 3 weeks post-procedure and will not drop or collapse, regardless of whether the suspensions are released. If the suspensions are released before 2 weeks following the procedure, the nose will return to its original form.

Paper bands are used to protect and support the shape of the nose for 4-5 days post-surgery. Splints are not required in a nose suspension procedure.

Liquid nitrogen is the liquid state of the gas nitrogen that occupies 78% of the air we breathe. Liquid nitrogen is extremely cold, having a boiling point of minus 196°cm.

It is easily stored and transported in special flasks, making it a highly effective locally applied freezing agent for medical treatments based on cold therapy.

Cryotherapy is usually a very well-tolerated treatment, but can sometimes cause discomfort if a deep freeze is necessary.

This discomfort can occur during and after the treatment and may require painkillers for the first 24 hours to relieve this, or, you may opt to have a local anaesthetic applied beforehand.

Risks are minimal with Cryotherapy treatment. Side effects can include residual pain, swelling and redness, blistering, and infection.

It is important to keep the area as dry as possible and a dressing or plaster may be applied if the treated area is likely to be knocked or rubbed by clothing.

It is also crucial not to pick the scab as this may cause scarring.

The Dermamelan mask is usually applied once but if you have severe pigmentation then a second mask can be applied a couple of weeks after your first treatment to ensure you get the best possible results.

To enhance further, you are recommended to use the specific Dermamelan home care products for several months after your treatment.

Dermamelan Peel treatments are specifically designed to treat the facial region

Your Dermamelan Peel treatment will be performed by one of our onsite aesthetic practitioners

No longer than 20 minutes per treatment

The most typical side effects include; redness, peeling and flaking of the skin during the first week following your Dermamelan peel treatment – these are very common and completely normal.

You may feel tightness of the skin for a couple of days after the mask is removed. You will most certainly experience redness following the removal of the mask and when you first start using the at home products but this soon subsides after a few days, you will then notice peeling or flaking of the skin during the first week following your Dermamelan peel treatment - we can provide you with a specific moisturiser to relieve this.

You may prefer to take a couple of days off work following your treatment for the peeling to settle.

Depending on the severity of your pigmentation and the speed at which you fully heal after your treatment (usually around 3-6 days) you will then see a noticeable improvement in the tone and luminosity of the skin after approximately 2-8 weeks.

Your practitioner will advise you on how to use any homecare products which will prevent further pigmentation recurring.

The Mini-Facelift is a refined technique requiring less disturbance of the facial tissues and therefore is quicker. It takes perhaps 1-1.5 hours. There are variations of technique and sometimes extra refinements are indicated, such as fat grafting and stem cell treatments.

Some surgeons used to take well over five hours for the standard full facelift.

Historically, face-lift operations have been lengthier procedures, resulting in higher pain levels and longer healing time. Modern technology and refined techniques mean that a Mini Face-Lift operation now lasts around 1 to 1.5 hours, it is painless and healing time is much faster.

Choosing a surgeon who is an expert in their field and specializes in face-lifts will ensure you get the best results possible. At the Cadogan Clinic, we have innovative surgeons. You will be in excellent hands. 

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the skin which affects 2% of the population and causes an increase in the rate of the cell turnover.

The normal rate of cell turnover is around a month but in psoriasis, it can be as little as 3-4 days. This causes a build-up of skin cells which cannot be shed normally and typically presents as well-demarcated pink or red plaques with a superficial silvery scale.

The plaques tend to be symmetrical and most often occur on the knees, elbows and shins but can occur anywhere on the body. The scalp and flexures of the axillae (armpits) and groin may also be affected. Psoriasis can also affect the nails which classically have tiny depressions or pits and with separation of the distal nail margin from the underlying nail plate and may be associated with arthritis (joint pains).

Psoriasis is due to an immune system dysfunction and is not something you can catch nor is it contagious. It is mediated by T-cells, a class of white blood cells which usually fend off attacks from viruses and bacteria, but with psoriasis the T-cells attack the healthy skin stimulating the increased production of new skin cells and causing inflammation.

The cause of the T-cell malfunction is thought to be a genetic predisposition and environmental factors. There is often a positive family history of psoriasis and the environmental causes include:

+ Infection: especially a streptococcal sore throat which can trigger the onset of psoriasis and precede subsequent flares
+ Stress: this can trigger or aggravate psoriasis
+ Medication: prescribed medication for high blood pressure such as beta blockers can be associated with psoriasis as can Lithium and stopping strong oral or topical steroids
+ Alcohol: excess alcohol intake is associated with bad psoriasis.
+ Obesity
+ Smoking
+ Trauma: psoriasis plaques localize to areas of skin trauma such as a scar. The medical term for this is called Koebnerisation.

Psoriasis is a chronic disease that flares and subsides intermittently over life. While there is no cure for psoriasis (meaning the condition cannot be eradicated completely so a future flare-up never occurs), there are many ways to manage the symptoms.

Topical treatment is best suited for mild to moderate cases of psoriasis and consists of creams, ointments or gels. Sometimes topical treatment will be used as a supplement to a larger medical plan for severe psoriasis.

These can include:

+ Emollients or moisturizers to moisturize dry skin, reduce scaling and relieve itching. These are first-line treatment and can be used with other psoriasis treatments.
+ Topical steroids work by reducing skin inflammation. Mild strength topical steroid creams can be useful for flexural and facial psoriasis but their use needs to be monitored as they can cause skin atrophy (thinning ) if overused.
+ A topical steroid with a Vitamin D analogue such as Dovobet is a good treatment for plaque psoriasis on the body
+ Vitamin D analogues such as calcipotriol can be used on the face and for flexural psoriasis, help regulate the immune response to slow down the rate of cell turnover
+ Coal Tar slows down the rate of cell turnover and has been a treatment for psoriasis for many years but has a distinctive smell, stains clothes and is now mostly used for widespread small plaque psoriasis or guttate psoriasis characterized by widespread small patches of inflamed skin.
+ Dithranol is another well-established treatment for thick plaques of psoriasis on the limbs. It is now mostly used with a short contact regime of gradually increasing concentrations of Dithrocream. It also stains clothes.
+ Calcineurin inhibitors such a Tacrolimus or Pimecrolimus originally developed to treat eczema and used on the face and for flexural psoriasis.

Psoriasis often improves in the summer and on exposure to sunlight.

Light Therapy, also known as phototherapy, harnesses the power of ultraviolet light often in combination with topical treatment if topical treatment alone has not been effective.

Types of light therapy for psoriasis include:

+ Narrowband ultraviolet B
+ Psoralens plus ultraviolet A or PUVA which combines a light-sensitizing medication with ultraviolet light treatment.

Systemic treatment for psoriasis through medication is typically reserved for severe cases or those which have not responded to topical treatments with phototherapy. This is because medication to treat psoriasis are accompanied by potentially severe side effects.

Your doctor may prescribe a psoriasis medication for a short burst and supplement with other treatment types. It is important to discuss a medication plan thoroughly with your doctor.

Psoriasis medications are either taken orally via pill or by injection. Types of these medications include

+ Methotrexate (oral pill)
+ Cyclosporin(oral pill)
+ Biologics (injections)

Research indicates that drinking alcohol is a common trigger for psoriasis, and can increase the likelihood of a flare-up in an individual disposed to psoriasis.

This is not always the case, however, and psoriasis can be triggered by a variety of other emotional, environmental and medical factors.

It is also true that people who do not drink alcohol can suffer from psoriasis.

There is evidence that psoriasis is genetic and it is common that psoriasis sufferers also have family members who suffer from the condition.

This is a very common disorder, however, impacting roughly 2% of the population and variety of other causes are also known to be associated beyond genetics, including an array of environmental and medical causes.

Psoriasis is not contagious. It is caused by an over active immune system, so cannot be given to somebody else.

Typically psoriasis is not dangerous when experienced in mild form.

That said, psoriasis can be a very dangerous condition, particularly when symptoms are generalised (as opposed to localised) and very severe.

If you suffer from psoriasis you should seek a professional medical opinion.

Psoriasis is a chronic condition. Whilst symptoms may go into remission of their own accord, without proper treatment and control, it is unlikely that they will go away permanently

Psoriasis is a chronic condition. There is no cure for psoriasis. Some treatments can control the condition permanently, or even prompt long remissions.

But since psoriasis is linked to genetic makeup, we do not have a permanent cure for the disease

Whilst your results may essentially prove permanent, treatments are only able to control the disease and are not able to fully cure it.

It will not be known at the outset whether your treatment is able to deliver permanent results for you

It is often difficult for an untrained eye to tell the difference between the two conditions.

You will need to seek a professional medical opinion from a trained dermatologist to understand your skin condition if you are unsure

Varicose veins are enlarged veins that are visible under the skin. At their worst, they look like bunches of grapes lying beneath the skin and at their least severe they can take the form of thread veins (also known as spider veins), which are smaller and do not protrude from the skin. Any superficial vein can become varicose or develop into a thread vein if the blood does not flow through the venous system quickly enough, and the thin walls surrounding the veins stretch. The legs and feet are most commonly affected.

How do varicose veins develop?

In a normal vein, blood flows in one direction only- towards the heart. There are valves within the inner wall of most veins, which prevent blood flowing backwards by opening to allow the blood through and then closing to keep it from back draining. A vein becomes “varicose” when these valves fail to work properly. Blood pools within the vein, and the increased pressure causes the vein to bulge and lengthen, resulting in a varicose vein.

Factors which make you more likely to develop varicose veins:

+ Gender: It is thought that female hormones make the walls of veins more likely to stretch.
+ Pregnancy: The higher levels of female hormones and the pressure exerted by the uterus on the main veins in the body make a pregnant woman more likely to develop varicose veins. However, 40% of these women find that their varicose veins disappear within 3 months of giving birth.
+ Genetics: Your risk of developing varicose veins is greater if a close family member has them.
+ Obesity: Excess weight exerts pressure on the venous system, increasing the chances that varicose veins will develop. Lack of mobility and high blood pressure which are caused by obesity will also make the symptoms of varicose veins worse.
+ Age: All the tissues in out body loose elasticity as we get older, including the walls of veins. This makes them more likely to stretch and become varicose.

Varicose veins are enlarged veins that are visible under the skin. At their worst, they look like bunches of grapes lying beneath the skin and at their least severe they can take the form of thread veins (also known as spider veins), which are smaller and do not protrude from the skin. Any superficial vein can become varicose or develop into a thread vein if the blood does not flow through the venous system quickly enough, and the thin walls surrounding the veins stretch.

At their worst, varicose veins can result in toxins leaking onto the tissues of the ankle and calf, ultimately causing ulceration of the skin. There are therefore compelling clinical reasons to operate on a significant number of people with this problem. There are also many people who are not at risk of developing ulceration, but who dislike the unsightly varicose or thread veins. No one wants to feel ashamed of their legs, especially if it limits what you feel comfortable wearing or where you feel comfortable going.

There are multiple treatments for varicose veins, and the best choice of treatment for each individual takes into account the pattern of disease, the aims of treatment, the size of the veins affected and the symptoms they are causing. 

Some treatment options for varicose veins include:

+ Radiofrequency ablation: A probe is threaded into the vein which is the source of the varicosities below. The probe delivers microwave energy to the lining of the vein to heat it up which causes it to close. 
+ Endovenous laser treatment: This technique is very similar to radiofrequency ablation, although laser is used to close the vein instead of microwaves.
+ Sclerotherapy: A chemical is injected directly into the visible varicose veins, which causes them to close. This treatment option may take several sessions and is suitable for smaller veins only.
+ Phlebectomies: Sometimes surgical removal of the visible varicose veins is the best option. This is done through tiny incisions made with a needle.
+ Ligation and stripping: In some cases, traditional surgery may be the best option. Small incisions are made at the top and bottom of the target vein which is then removed.

Please see one of our vascular surgeons to discuss which of these treatments may be right for you.

Varicose veins are enlarged veins that are visible under the skin. At their worst, they look like bunches of grapes lying beneath the skin and at their least severe they can take the form of thread veins (also known as spider veins), which are smaller and do not protrude from the skin. Any superficial vein can become varicose or develop into a thread vein if the blood does not flow through the venous system quickly enough, and the thin walls surrounding the veins stretch. Symptoms usually associated with varicose veins can be present without obviously visible varicosities, but as a result of poor blood flow through the superficial venous system in your legs which can also be the cause of visible veins.

Some symptoms associated with varicose and thread veins can include:

+ Heavy or aching legs: an unusual feeling of weight in the legs is an indication that something is not normal; heavy legs can be accompanied by soreness, tenderness to the touch, and swelling
+ Cramping: an abnormal cramping and/or throbbing in your legs can be a sign that the blood is pooling in the veins and not circulating around your legs as it should
+ Itchy and/or Flaky Skin: this symptom can sometimes be mistaken for dry skin, but if you are experiencing chronic itchiness and flaky skin on your lower leg it may be because of varicose veins
+ Swollen Ankles: If you are suffering from varicose veins you may experience swelling in your ankles due to the effects of static blood in your legs.

For most people, varicose veins are usually an aesthetic problem as well as a medical one. Consult your doctor if you need help and advice for varicose veins, or if you have concerns about the impact of varicose veins on your health.

It is possible to develop skin cancer at any time during ones life, particularly if you are considered high risk (e.g. you have fair skin). That said, the older you are the more likely you are to develop skin cancer so we strongly recommend this for those in their 50s or older.

Standalone mole mapping starts from £100. For a mole map and a consultation with a dermatologist it is £299

The whole process does not take longer than half an hour. You will then meet your dermatologist for a further half an hour.

We recommend you come in regularly to have your moles monitored every six months.

Mole mapping is the most comprehensive safeguard against skin cancer and is recommended for anyone worried about their moles. Early detection saves lives, and mole mapping is the best option for supporting the detection process

Mole mapping and Dermoscopy begins with a consultation and full clinical examination by a Consultant Dermatologist. The Dermatologist begins by identifying and marking any suspicious moles and ones which warrant monitoring.

Next, the patient will be taken through the process of having whole body photography and dermoscopy of any moles that the dermatologist has marked. For the photography, the patient will stand on a mat at a fixed distance to allow for reproducible images to be taken by the camera on the mole mapping machine. Close up dermoscopy images are then taken of any moles identified by the dermatologist for monitoring using a hand-held dermoscope, which uses polarised light for accurate imaging.
All dermoscopy images are uploaded to the patients' medical profile to allow the dermatologist to view the moles in detail. This completes the initial clinical examination.

There will be a follow-up appointment booked by the dermatologist in order to have the dermoscopic images repeated to see if there have been any changes in the moles.

In about 4-6 months' time, a follow-up appointment will be booked so that the process can be carried out in reverse order, with a repeat dermoscopy of the moles being monitored. During this appointment, the Consultant Dermatologist will review any changes in the moles in the before and after photos.

If there is a need for excision of any moles that have changed to prevent further progression, this will be performed under local anaesthetic and the specimen sent to the laboratory for a full histological diagnosis.

Computerized mole mapping is a tool to record moles and detect new moles. This is done in combination with Dermoscopy.
It is used to monitor changes in existing moles, detect any progression and pick up skin cancers, especially malignant melanomas, early.

It is important to note that 52% of malignant melanomas are identified through early changes.

The more moles you have, the harder it is to perform accurate self-examinations. This leads to a higher likelihood that one or more moles will change without you noticing.

This type of mole mapping is objective, therefore vital in the prevention of skin cancer.

Our service is overseen by fully trained medical professionals, and is unlike the nurse-led equivalents found on the high street.

+ Dermatologist-Led: our mole mapping service is dermatologist-led, meaning that every mole map patient is seen by a trained dermatologist and not simply a nurse.
+ Computerized Mapping: our mapping tool is computerized and is consequently able to pick up even the subtlest changes in size and shape of your moles
+ Dermoscopy: each mole is also reviewed by our dermatologist team under a high-powered dermatoscope, or dermatology microscope, in order to overlay this assessment with the very best trained professional opinion
+ Rapid, Same-day Removal: We are also able to offer rapid, same day removal of worrisome moles since we have three fully staffed theatres on site. For the removal of bigger or deeper moles, or those in more visible places and sensitive to scarring, we have a team of plastic surgeons who can undertake the procedure
+ Mohs Surgery: We also offer cutting-edge Mohs surgery, the optimal approach for removing skin cancers as determined by NICE (National Institute for Health & Care Excellence)

Most people have moles which remain perfectly fine throughout their lifetime but if you notice signs that a mole has changed in any way, it is wise to have it checked by a dermatologist or doctor during a mole check to make sure it is not cancerous.

This kind of skin cancer includes melanomas, basal cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. Moles can also be precancerous lesions, changes that are not cancer but could become cancer over time.

The good news is that skin cancer can be cured if it's found and treated early. Contact the Mole Clinic at Cadogan Clinic for more information.

Bleeding or itchy moles can occur when they have been irritated or scratched – moles catching on clothing, being cut by a razor, makeup application, scratching an insect bite and hair removal are all very common triggers. However, these are also sign that the mole is cancerous.

There are definite signs that a mole could be a melanoma and individuals should seek immediate advice from a dermatologist. If you have a new mole or a change in your moles such as bleeding, changes in shape, size or colour, itchy or painful moles- it's imperative that you seek medical advice at the earliest possible stage.

Patients should be vigilant in having moles checked annually or as advised by your dermatologist if you have a history of previously abnormal naevi (moles) or skin cancer. An early diagnosis is crucial in managing this potentially life-threatening disease; skin cancer which is detected and removed early is almost always curable.

Melanoma is a cancer of the pigment cells (melanocytes) in the skin. It is a very serious skin cancer that has the ability to metastasise or spread to other organs of the body. It can develop anywhere on the body, yet the most common places are on areas of the body that have been overly exposed to the sun.

Melanoma is the fifth most common form of cancer in the UK and rates of melanoma have been increasing steadily since the mid-1970s, more than any of the ten other most common cancers in both men and women. This is the deadliest form of skin cancer.

There are several types of melanomas, including:

+ Superficial Spreading Melanomas – these account for around 70% of all reported cases of melanoma in the UK. They are moles that spread radially and often have an irregular edge. In the radial growth phase, they usually remain confined to the skin and have not spread, but if they begin to grow deeper they can then metastasise to other parts of the body. If you have a mole with an irregular edge, get it examined by a doctor.

+ Lentigo Maligna Melanomas – these account for around 10% of all reported cases of melanoma in the UK. They often begin looking like a freckle on the face of the elderly and enlarge slowly. If they start to grow downwards and become nodular or change shape or pigmentation it is likely that melanoma has developed.

+ Acral Lentiginous Melanoma – these are a rare type of melanoma, accounting for only 5% of all reported cases. They occur on the palms of hands, the soles of feet or around a finger/toenail.

+ Amelanotic Melanoma – these are another rare type of melanoma, accounting for only 5% of all reported cases in the UK. They may have little or no colour or may be pink or greyish spots on the skin.

The whole process typically takes less than half an hour, although this can be much longer for rarer, more complex cases.

Moles are usually removed under local anaesthetic. After careful examination, the area around the mole will be cleaned and a surgical drape placed around the area to ensure a sterile working area.

Your surgeon will cut all the way around the mole, typically in an oval shape. The mole(s) will be placed in a specimen jar and sent to a lab for analysis. Your surgeon will close the wound with stitches, if required, and cover it with a dressing.

You will be able to go home after your procedure and return to work. It is unusual for such a minor procedure to impact your usual activities.

If you experience any pain following your mole removal, over the counter pain relief such as Paracetamol can be used.
Results of the analysis will be shared with you by our team within 24 hours.

Sometimes your surgeon will ask you to return a few days following your mole removal to inspect the wound and change the dressing. If the wound area becomes red, swollen or bleeds be sure to contact our 24 hour on-call nursing service.

You may also be required to visit our nursing team at a later date to have your stitches removed. .

The NHS no longer delivers "non-essential" mole treatments, meaning that the majority of mole removal procedures, or the removal of skin 'lumps and bumps' (e.g. warts, verrucae and skin tags), can no longer be administered for free on the NHS.

A mole that is believed to be life-threatening or cancerous can be removed on the NHS, however.

We recommend that all patients establish the exact length of the expected waiting list with your local NHS Trust. These are unfortunately currently subject to significant delays (e.g. several months or longer), due to the disruption caused by the COVID crisis.

Yes, a Micro-Lift may be the perfect solution for your excess neck skin, but there are other solutions.

The Micro-Lift procedure is designed to help alleviate early signs of ageing and mild loss of elasticity loss.

This procedure commences with the making of a tiny incision below each ear. The connective tissue below the skin is pulled and held back to create a subtle structural lift in your jawline and neck. The skin will become taut and contours defined again.

The Micro-Lift does not offer drastic results. This is the subtlest in facelift procedures. If you have moderate skin laxity a mini-facelift may be a better choice for you. Or, if you have a problem with severe folds or prominent jowls you may want to consider a full facelift. However, if you are in your late 30s to late 40s and are looking for a light “pick up” in your face and neck area, the Micro-Lift is probably the best solution for you.

Remember that these modern lifting procedures are often combined with fat transfer and stem cell transfer to restore volume in the right places and rejuvenate the skin.

Any extra unwanted fat or double chin is removed by liposuction.

The recovery period for a Micro-Lift is really short. Most patients are back to their regular routines after just a few days. You will experience minimal discomfort after surgery. In addition, the smallness of the facial incisions means that your skin’s healing process will be quicker as well. You have minimal chance of poor scarring.

There is the pain of one or several very small needle pricks and that is about it. It is, after all, simply just another filler injection, using the same filler type and needle. There is no need for anaesthesia and there is no pain afterwards.

It is of interest to point out that a surgical Rhinoplasty is also virtually pain-free after surgery.

Do not be put off by pain. If you are uncertain about whether you will like the outcome, then the medical or non-surgical procedure could be a good choice for you.

It is important, nevertheless, that your surgeon is experienced and knows the anatomy, as there are risks particularly of skin loss or embolism with the apparently simpler non-surgical procedure.

Non-surgical Rhinoplasty is a temporary procedure. You will need to schedule maintenance appointments to maintain your new look. The benefit of this is that you can make adjustments over time. Perhaps your desired look changes or it takes several sessions to dial in on exactly what you want to see.

To see if a non-surgical rhinoplasty is best for you, book a consultation with our team at the Cadogan Clinic so we can help determine your goals and recommend the best treatment.

Rhinoplasty is carried out with the patient only just asleep under total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA), and depending on your requirements, the surgeon may do any of the following:

Nose reduction - make the nose smaller by removing some cartilage and bone. This often involves rasping down the bridge of the nose and fracturing the nasal bones, where they join the face. The skin of the nostrils does not shrink to the same extent as the rest of the nose and there may be a necessity for reducing the base of the nostrils or the floor of the nose, by removing a wedge of tissue.

Nose reshapingchanging the shape of the nose by rearranging or adding to the cartilaginous and bony skeleton.

Nose proportionschanging the angle between the nose and top lip.

You are suitable for Sculptra facial fillers if you are seeking to restore facial volume and correct contour defects for longer periods of time than can be achieved by typical dermal filler.

Sculptra seeks to

+ Replaces lost volume caused by ageing
+ Corrects deep folds, wrinkles and contour defects
+ Increases dermal thickness
+ Deliver long-lasting natural appearance with results lasting for over 3 years.

Sculptra can be used to add volume to all areas of the upper, mid and lower face, and support contouring efforts in all areas of the body.

We only offer consultant – led filler treatments, performed by highly trained cosmetic dermatologists or plastic surgeons.

Dermal Filler treatments in the UK are currently unregulated meaning any aesthetic practitioner can perform them. This has led to the proliferation of low quality 'high street' providers, and filler treatments even being made available in non-medical environments such as gyms.

At the Cadogan Clinic we believe such practices are extremely risky and highly correlated with unsafe and poor aesthetic outcomes.

Sculptra treatment typically takes 15 – 20 minutes, and no longer than 30 minutes. You may need more than one session to deliver optimal results at the outset.

Results are not immediate following Sculptra treatment. Results should first start to be visible after about 6 weeks. Best results will be visible 6 months after treatment

Yes, the results of Sculptra last longer than alternative dermal filler treatment. Your results will last between 2 – 3 years, some time longer than dermal filler.

While results aren't permanent, they also can't be undone if you don't like the results or have a complication; you'll have to wait for them to fade over time.

As with all injectable treatments you will be able to feel a little discomfort during Sculptra treatment as the injections are made.

Unlike surgical procedures, dermal fillers require no cuts, incisions or stitches to be made. Patients describe the sensation as feeling like a tiny scratch as the needle goes in, with a slight stinging sensation like the snap of an elastic band as the filler is applied.

For those feeling anxious, we can use a local anaesthetic to numb the area completely.

Sculptra injections are very safe. Possible side effects include temporary bruising, asymmetry, and the development of nodules under the skin.

Possible side effects include temporary bruising, asymmetry, and the development of nodules under the skin.

These small knots under the skin can occur immediately following injection, usually just as the result of swelling. If they're still there more than a month after treatment, you would need to get in touch with us.

Sculptra side effects also include keloid formation and hypertrophic scarring. Sculptra is not recommended for people with a history of keloids and hypertrophic scarring (which is similarly caused by excess collagen production).

Micro-Needling skin therapy is a multi-function treatment that uses small needles to cause tiny punctures in the skin.

These small contact points encourage the body to create a wound healing response and renew the skin cells. As your skin repairs, serum growth factors stimulate new collagen and elastin development. This treatment is most commonly used to combat acne and surgical scarring, enlarged pores, fine lines and wrinkles, loose and non-elastic skin and stretch marks.

This micro-needling treatment is based on the natural rejuvenating power of the skin. Shortly after any injury to the human skin, old and damaged skin tissue dissolves and is replaced by new cells. The gentle, controlled needling method used in the Derma FNS™ Micro-Needle skin therapy encourages this organic self-repair mechanism on a microcosmic scale. 

The thin needles are used to gently penetrate the skin and create micro-injuries that trigger the synthesis of new collagen. This method is extremely effective and is hugely popular with clients who prefer a rejuvenation method involving significantly less epidermal damage than alternative treatments.

Derma FNS™ comes with disposable, sterilised individual micro-needling tips; each tip has multiple stainless steel micro-needles. The tip depth can be adjusted between .25mm to 2.1mm depending on your specific needs and different treatment areas. This allows the needles to be adjusted during your session for optimal results on facial contours and the delicate features such as your eyes, nose and mouth. 

Compared to other leading competitors, Derma FNS™ offers many advantages. Its advanced technology penetrates more of the skin, allowing for better absorption of topical skin treatments, as well as stimulating new collagen production. Because of the vertical delivery, the micro-needles in the Derma FNS™ cause less epidermal damage than traditional derma rollers, which have the risk of bending, breaking and causing large incisions in the skin, leading to more bleeding, pain and longer recovery time. The stamping action of Derma FNS™ offers a more consistent treatment method that minimises pain and bleeding, better rejuvenating the skin. 

Peels are suitable for many skin types and concerns. Your practitioner will go through a medical questionnaire with you and determine your suitability.  Certain patients may not be suitable for a peel due to the risk of photosensitizing the skin and poor healing. These include those with known compromised skin healing, certain immune system disorders, photosensitizing medication, Accutane and herpes simplex. These factors will be discussed in detail at your consultation.

For some peels, you may be required to have a skin care treatment plan. So, stop smoking and avoid sunshine and photosensitizing drugs. Then there is the ‘at home’ skin preparation, which might be glycolic acid, retinoic acid, and darker-skinned patients may need a bleaching agent or melanin inhibitor, such as hydroquinone.

Micro-Needling is a minimally invasive procedure which has very little downtime and should be performed in a clean, medical environment.

On your treatment day, your practitioner will re-asses your medical history and you will be required to sign your consent.

The skin in the treatment area will be cleansed and a topical anaesthetic cream will be applied to the area that is to be treated (optional) and this will be left on for approximately 30mins.

The anaesthetic will then be removed, and the skin will be sterilised. A product will be applied to the area to allow the micro-needling device to move smoothly over the area. Some pinpoint bleeding may occur, and this is normal as this is the ‘trigger process’ of the skin - this is going to stimulate the fibroblasts to induce the production of collagen and elastin and the overall wound healing process.

Immediately after the needling, this skin will feel quite hot - similar to a sunburn reaction, and it will feel swollen. This response lasts for approximately 24- 48 hours depending on the individual. A serum and physical sunscreen will be applied to the skin before you leave.

There are a variety of different chemical peels targeted to treat different skin types and skin concerns. Peels vary from superficial depth to the deeper dermal peels. They are tailored to the individual. They are used to treat fine lines, wrinkles, mild scarring, acne and increased and post-inflammatory pigmentation.

The depth and strength of peel are determined by the condition to be treated.

Peels do not tighten skin or improve elasticity. They are more suited to treating the texture, quality and health of the skin. If however, your concerns are targeted around deeper (static) lines and skin laxity, then alternatives such as dermal fillers, laser or surgery would be more suited.

The frequency of a peel varies from every 2 weeks to once a month. This and the number of peels that you are recommended to have will be advised by your practitioner.

When treating concerns like acne and pigmentation, you may be required to have more frequent sessions every 2 weeks. If we are treating fine lines and general skin health you may be advised to have a treatment every 3- 4 weeks. This will be detailed for you during your consultation.

At your initial rhinoplasty consultation, your surgeon will go through any pre-operative advice with you which will include eating well, quitting smoking, avoiding alcohol and avoiding aspirin and blood-thinning medication.

You will not be allowed food for 6 hours and water for 2 hours prior to your operation. You may choose to take Arnica tablets to reduce any bruising following your nose surgery. If you have any other questions or concerns then you will be able to address them during your consultation.

Ear pinning surgery, or pinnaplasty, is ear surgery where the ears are pinned back to restore a more aesthetic appearance to ears that are sticking out or protruded.

Ear pinning surgery, or pinnaplasty, is very short surgery that can take place under local anaesthetic in less than an hour.

During the ear surgery, the ears are pinned back following an excision and reshaping of the underlying ear cartilage. Pinning ears back does not involve much scarring, and any scars can be hidden in the ear folds.

You are suitable for Ear Reshaping surgery if you are:

+ Over 5 years old (when the ear cartilage is stable enough for correction)
+ Healthy individual with realistic expectations of what surgery can achieve
+ Do not have chronic or untreated ear infection

Surgery is typically performed under local anaesthetic, and can be completed in an hour or less.

There are many different techniques depending on whether your ear is being reshaped, resized or repositioned.

If your surgeon is aiming to pin your ears back closer to your head, your surgeon will start by making an incision along the crease-line behind your ear and remove any excess cartilage that is causing it to protrude. The ear is then pinned back along the fold to its new position, closer to the head.

Following the surgery, the area will be stitched up and a dressing wrapped around your head to support the cartilage in its new place.

Surgery is typically no longer than an hour. In complex cases, it may take a little while longer but no more than 2 hours.

The procedure itself takes place under local anaesthetic so you will be comfortable and not feel any pain.

Most patients only have minor pain and discomfort during the days following the ear reshaping surgery, this can be controlled with over the counter medications such as paracetamol and anti-inflammatory tablets.

Ears can be tender for 1-2 weeks following the initial surgery if the patient bumps their ear. However, by this time most patients are pain-free.

Yes, ear reshaping surgery results are generally permanent.

As long as you take care of your ears during the recovery period there should be no reason why your ears revert to their original position.

You should see results from your surgery almost immediately, but typically we recommend waiting for between 1 and 2 weeks to allow any bruising or swelling to subside, before you can expect to see your full results

We regard the healing cartilage like a healing bone and need to splint the ear in its new position as it heals.

We therefore provide all patients with a head bandage after surgery that must be worn for between 5 – 7 days.

If the surgery does not involve the cartilage, then a head bandage is not a requirement and the stitches can be masked with simple tape.

There is very little downtime after ear reshaping surgery.

We recommend you take a week off work, during which time you will need to wear a head bandage day and night to support the wound.

Your ears may be a little bruised and swollen during this time, and you will need to keep wearing the bandage support at night for at least 3 weeks.

Any discomfort is easily managed with painkillers, and normal washing and bathing is possible within a week.

You should make a full recovery anywhere between 4 to 6 weeks after surgery.

There should be no visible scarring following your ear reshaping surgery. This is because the incisions should be skilfully placed in the natural folds and lines of the ears or behind it, to ensure no scarring will be seen.

Otoplasty and Pinnaplasty are two technical names that are used interchangeably to reference cosmetic ear reshaping surgery.

You will need to wear a headband for 5 to 7 days to ensure your ears are maintained in the correct position post-surgery, and for up to a month at night after surgery whilst you are sleeping.

You can therefore expect to be wearing your glasses after 3 weeks after surgery, but can take longer. You should therefore consider buying prescription contact lenses for this time period.

It is extremely unlikely that an ear pinning procedure will affect your hearing.

The ear is made up of 3 parts: the outer ear (the pinna), the middle ear and the inner ear. All 3 parts contribute to hearing, but it is mainly the middle and inner ear that affect it.

Otoplasty surgery only concerns the outer ear so it is very unlikely that surgery to this area will affect your hearing.

Ear correction surgery may be possible on the NHS, particularly for children who need it for therapeutic (medical) reasons.

Cosmetic ear reshaping surgery is not possible on the NHS, except in very rare circumstances where severe psychological distress can be evidenced.

Although prominent or abnormal ears do not cause any hearing difficulties, they can be a source of bullying for children. It is therefore quite common for children to have an ear pinning.

Children should be 6 years of age or older since at this point the ears have fully matured. It is also preferable to wait for an age when a child is able to express their unhappiness with their appearance, and personally wish to have the position or shape of their ears corrected.

There are no differences in the surgical techniques used for children and adults, although children are more likely to have the procedure done under a general anaesthetic.

Ear surgery for stretched ears and ear lobes is possible.  Stretched ears typically develop with the onset of age or if heavy ear jewellery is worn for long periods of time.

Stretched ears are easily reversed by ear surgery, and the procedure is quick and effective, and takes place under local anaesthetic in under an hour.

For an example of previous stretched ear results, take a look at our Ear Pinning Before and After Gallery.

You can view ear pinning before and after images in our Ear Pinning Before and After Gallery on this page.

At your consultation, your consultant will also share more extensive examples of ear pinning before and after results they have achieved.

We feel strongly that you can best understand what might be possible for you and your ears by reviewing the results of previous ear pinning procedures

Otoplasty is minor surgery and complications are typically those associated with such surgery. This can include:

+ Asymmetry
+ Bleeding and bruising is the most common risk and there is always some swelling. The purpose of the head bandage is to reduce this risk and speed healing.
+ Scarring - scars are typically behind the ear and not visilbe, but on occasions, these scars can become hypertrophic, that is raised and pink, gradually resolving over some months, or even keloid with scars that continue to grow to the point where they may become visible. We can mitigate this with the Cadogan Clinic scar treatment
+ Infection and necrosis (loss of tissue)
+ Numbness
+ Re-protrusion
+ Stiffness of the ear

Keloid ear surgery is an ear plastic surgery procedure designed to address the problems caused by the formation of keloids at the site of ear jewellery.

These keloids are stimulated by an allergic response to the metal of the stud or sleeper of an earring. The typical sleeper is made of steel covered with a thin plating of gold – when this plating dissolves it exposes the underlying steel which contains impurities such as nickel that can stimulate the ear keloid.

Keloid ear surgery targets these keloids by surgically removing the keloids, allowing healing and then re-piercing 6 weeks later. Without treatment earlobe keloids can grow from the site of the piercing, on both the front and the back of the ear and eventually can replace the whole earlobe.

This cause of these ear keloids was discovered by Mr Bryan Mayou, the founder of the Cadogan Clinic, as a result of research done with the support of the Goldsmith’s Company.

Earlobe repair and earlobe reduction surgery are the most effective means for getting rid of a lump on the earlobe.

Contrary to popular expectation, Rhinoplasty involves virtually no pain following surgery. Whilst there may be some level of discomfort immediately following your procedure (and likely some symptoms such as a blocked nose etc.), pain levels will be modest.

It depends on your particular case. Rhinoplasty surgery at Cadogan Clinic starts from around £6,500. However, this will depend on your particular case. Medical rhinoplasty and small refinements will cost a lot less. This can only be determined during a consultation with your surgeon, and following that an accurate price can be quoted.

Once you arrive at the clinic for your nose reshaping surgery, you will be taken downstairs by our friendly nurses to be prepped for surgery and meet the anaesthetist. You will also have another chat with the surgeon, as this is the final point when the surgeon needs to know exactly what you require. Once you have had your operation, you will recuperate in our recovery room and when you have eaten a few hours later and you are ready, your surgeon will discharge you with some post-operative advice. A friend or relative is able to collect you and take you home. Before leaving the clinic our nursing staff will ensure you have everything you need including a post-operative appointment time and they are likely to give you some spare gauze to keep under the nostrils to catch any drips.

Rhinoplasty is one of our most popular treatments at Cadogan Clinic, and any risks associated with nose reshaping are the same as with any other surgical procedure that involves a general anaesthetic. Any specific risks will be discussed by your surgeon who will explain the nose surgery process in detail and answer your specific concerns.

Some possible risks can include:

+ Anesthesia risks, as with any surgery there are risks with using anesthesia.
+ Infection
+ Poor wound healing or scarring
+ Change in skin sensation; possible numbness or pain
+ Nasal septal perforation (a hole in the nasal septum). However keep in mind that this is very rare. Additional surgical treatment may be necessary to repair the septum but it may be impossible to correct this complication
+ Difficulty breathing
+ Unsatisfactory nasal appearance
+ Skin discoloration and swelling
+ Possibility of revisional surgery

The best way to avoid risks with surgery is to follow the proper aftercare instructions given to you by your surgeon. Many of these risks are rare.


As always with cosmetic surgery, it is essential that the surgeon, not only understands exactly what you are looking for, and can deliver it, but psychologically it is necessary to be as certain as one can be that this desired result actually satisfies the patient.

 

Blepharoplasty (also known as eyelid reduction, eye lift or eye bag removal), is eyelid surgery designed to rejuvenate the eye and eyelid area.

Eyelid surgery can relate to both the upper and the lower eyelids, but the common aim is to counteract the effects of ageing on the skin, muscle and fat around the eyes.

Eyelid surgery is most common among slightly older patients (50 years old or more) but can be necessary for younger patients, either to change existing genetic features (e.g. droopy eyelids, sunken eyes, lumps on eyelid) or to remove bulging pockets of fat (eyebags) that can build at a young age.

Eyelid surgery can also be performed in conjunction with other surgical procedures of the face, brow or nose. The most common supplementary procedure would be fat grafting for the ageing face and is now included in most combination cases to achieve youthful vitality.

Eyelid reduction is another term for blepharoplasty, but is specifically used to refer to techniques designed to tighten the eyelids and reduce, reshape or lift the eyelid skin around the eye to achieve a refreshed, rejuvenated appearance.

It is possible to tighten the eyelids and reduce, reshape and lift the eyelid skin in just 45 minutes, and this treatment is appropriate for both men and women.

It is very common after surgery to have puffy eyelids for a while, but significant complications are rare. You might have more trouble in the evening when trying to shut your eyes to sleep the first few nights. Your eyes may be irritated or watery for several weeks following the surgery, but this will return rapidly to normal. You may also have bruising resembling a black eye, and some light pink scarring that will fade over time.

Blurred vision immediately after surgery due to persisting local anaesthetic and ointment applied to the eye at the end of the procedure.

Our surgeons will explain all the risks, the likeliness of them occurring and any possibilities of complications upon consultation. 

Blepharoplasty, or eyelid reduction, is highly effective at fixing droopy eyelids, or ptosis, and is the one lifting procedure which rarely needs to be repeated.

Whilst the occasional non-surgical touch-up may be required to maintain the full effects of droopy eyelid surgery, another skin excision is unlikely and you can expect droopy eyelids to be restored following one surgery.

Your surgeon will need to be aware of any medical eye conditions you may suffer from as there are some occasions when surgery is contraindicated. In particular, dry eye can appear worse after surgery. Your experienced surgeon will also need to ascertain whether it is just the eyelids, which are of concern, or whether the surrounding brow, temple, cheekbones and tear trough are also requiring treatment.

All surgery can be carried out as a day case. Usually under Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (TIVA) with the patient only lightly anaesthetised. Smaller procedures can be carried out under local anaesthetic. Your eyes will not be bandaged at the end of the procedure and although vision may be slightly reduced because of the local anaesthesia used, this is only temporary. You should not drive a car for 24 hours. The eyelid skin heals very quickly and in a few days, any stitches can be removed. Bruising varies but like all bruises settles, and will become less visible over 10 days. Swelling accompanies all surgery and on the eyelid, this may give a watery look to the eye (chemosis) which can be annoying and last a few weeks. If patients have festoons or swelling over the cheekbones, then this can remain swollen for a month or two. Patients should be reassured that all this swelling does eventually settle.

Finally, the surgery itself is not painful and the only restrictions are intended to reduce temporary swelling. Wearing a cold compress immediately after surgery and sitting propped up in bed for the first night are useful, but probably do not affect the final result. The eye is also watery because the swelling around the tear ducts which naturally drain tears into the nose, swell up and become blocked, again this is only temporary and usually lasts a day or so. You will probably not wish to go to work the next day because of the appearance of dressings, swelling and bruising, but working from home is reasonable for many.

Blepharoplasty or eyelid surgery is safe in expert hands; however, every surgical procedure involves a certain amount of risk and it is important that you understand the risk before proceeding. You should discuss any existing medical problems with your surgeon, for instance, patients taking blood thinning agents are at risk of bruising which in certain types of lower eyelid surgery could cause bleeding behind the eye and in the exceptionally rare occasion, blindness. It is wise to avoid any aspirin or anti-inflammatory medications for 10 days before surgery as this too can increase the risk of bleeding.

Dry Irritated Eyes - Individuals who normally have dry eyes, may be advised to use special caution in considering Blepharoplasty surgery. If patients do use eye drops before surgery, they are quite likely to be using more afterwards.

Infection – Infection is rare and can be treated with antibiotic eye drops and ointment.

Watery Eye (Epiphora)- the tear ducts normally draining into the nose will temporarily block due to swelling. In addition, the swelling may give a watery appearance to the eye due to fluid under the conjunctiva. This is called Chemosis and may last a week or two.

Ectropion – Swelling after surgery can cause drooping of the lower eyelid and push the eyelid away from the eyeball. This usually settles as the swelling goes down and will be helped by massaging the swelling away from the eye and taping the eyelid upwards onto the eyeball. This can be a problem in the older patient and may be pre-existing to any surgery. There are operative procedures to correct it.

Your surgeon will give you all your pre-operative advice at your consultation. This may include having an eye test, if you have eye health issues, as well as a physical examination and eyelid photography from all angles. 

You will need to stop taking blood thinning medication such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and any other medication or herbal supplement associated with increased bleeding. Your surgeon will advise how long before surgery you need to stop taking these medicines.

You are advised to stop smoking for at least two weeks before your surgery. Smoking reduces healing and increases the risk of complications. Arrange for someone to drive you to and from surgery on the day.

Blepharoplasty is basically skin deep and there is little pain in the post-operative recovery phase. Any discomfort is minor and can be controlled with simple pain relief and eye ointments provided by your surgeon.

Most patients need no analgesia at all after this surgery. Any feeling of grittiness after surgery can be treated with the eye ointment given to you at the time of surgery. Although patients may look bruised and have visible dressings, they can often work from home the next day, and be back to their daily activities after a few days. The pain is minimal. 

Recovery from Blepharoplasty is quick but because surgery is in the middle of the face, the dressings and any bruising will be visible. There are a few patients who disregard this and continue normal life, however, we would suggest that exercise is a bad thing as it will delay recovery from bruising and swelling. Working from home is a good option, but it will take 10 days for bruising of the lower eyelids to settle, the upper eyelids generally settle rather quicker. Bruising can be disguised with make-up and we can advise you about cosmetic camouflage. If you are at all sensitive, you should take two weeks before appearing at work. Stitches are removed in the first week. You should also remember that vision can be a little blurred the first day. This is partly due to the surgery and local anaesthesia used, even when you have a general anaesthetic, but also the ointment applied inside the eyelid morning and night does to some extent obscure vision.

On occasion surgery to the lower rather than the upper eyelid can cause swelling which is a nuisance for longer. There is always swelling of tissues after surgery and if this extends under the conjunctiva and on to the eyeball, this is called chemosis. It makes the eye look watery and this can take several weeks to completely settle. In addition, any bruising under the conjunctiva gives bright red ‘haemorrhages’. Chemosis and haemorrhages are of no significance other than the appearance, it does eventually settle.

Swelling can also push the lower eyelid away from the eyeball causing an ectropion, which is annoying but in most cases settles spontaneously within a few days or weeks.

This really depends on your tolerance to of your appearance. All the surgery is in the middle of the face and therefore rather obvious. There will be some small dressings for about a week and a little bruising of the cheeks below the eyelids. There may be some minor pain and swelling around the incision areas, and your eyes will tend to water.

Alternatively, there may be some dryness that occurs, which is easily relieved with some ointment that your surgeon will provide. Occasionally the ointment will cause the patient to have slightly blurred vision, so you may want to rest and take some extra time off work to just relax at home where you’ll be comfortable. Some patients may have added sensitivity to light temporarily following eyelid surgery, so bare that in mind if your work involves bright lights.

Longer term you may develop chemosis, which is oedema (swelling) of the conjunctiva covering the white of the eye. It settles, but it may take a week or two. Those people who have malar pads or festoons of the upper cheek will find that these swell and persists for a month or two.

We would advise you to rest, avoid putting your head down and ad an extra pillow at night, so that any swelling or bruising settles quicker. We do have patients, who completely disregard this advice, without long-term issues and go back to full work or off on holiday the following day. We do however, like to see the patients to remove stitches a few days later. We will advise on make-up or in the form of cosmetic camouflage which does allow you to get out and about with confidence.

Blepharoplasty surgery can give life-changing results and an experienced expert surgeon will not change the shape of the eyes, unless this is the aim. Surgery has evolved in recent years and less muscle fat and skin are being removed.

Fat may be repositioned rather than removed. There will be no tell-tale signs that it has been removed, you will have a natural, face new look to your face. In addition, we aim for an extra youthful vitality which is achieved by fat grafting of the brow, temple, cheekbones, lower eyelids that surround the eye. Fat grafts include stem cells, which improve skin quality as well as contours This is a very specialised technique which makes all the difference in achieving incredible results you’ll be happy with. 

The skin of the eyelids is excellent at hiding scars, and any blepharoplasty scars will be hidden in the fold of the upper eyelid, making them nearly invisible on most people.

The only way the blepharoplasty scars would potentially be visible, is when there is a hood of skin to be removed which extends beyond the eyelid, however, again for most people this blepharoplasty scar becomes invisible.

The blepharoplasty scar of the lower eyelid will heal very well, and it is disguised under the eyelashes and in the crow’s feet.

Typical genetic causes for eyelid surgery include an array of cosmetic issues such as lumps on the eyelid, sunken eyes, droopy eyelids (ptosis).

Some individuals are also genetically predisposed toward dark circles under the eyes, and the early formation of bags under the eyes.

All of these genetic conditions can be addressed by eyelid surgery and blepharoplasty.

The folds of skin beyond the lower eyelid overlying the cheekbone are often called Festoons and are more difficult to eliminate. There are a few different ways we will work at removing Festoons, either through skin removal, excision, fat or filler, liposuction and steroid injection.

The best treatment for eye bags is eyelid surgery.

The eyebag removal surgery begins with a surgical incision underneath the eye. Fatty deposits are then surgically removed and excess skin cut away, before the incision points are sewn back together. Scars are hidden in the folds of the eye.

Eyebag removal surgery take no longer than 45 minutes to 1 hour and is a highly effective rejuvenating surgical procedure. It is widely held as the best treatment for eye bags and the most effective method for how to remove bags from under the eyes

Eyebag removal surgery is suitable for both men and women.

Dark circles under the eyes are caused by a variety of factors including fatigue, age, dehydration, eye strain, allergies and genetics.

Any or all of these can combine to cause dark circles under the eyes, even at a fairly young age.

It is possible to get rid of dark circles under the eyes via a number of surgical and non surgical treatments. These range from laser, to skin peels, fillers to surgical removal of excess fat and skin to reveal a smoother and more even skin surface.

By far the best treatment to get rid of dark circles under the eyes permanently is eyelid surgery, and a transformative effect can be achieved in just 45 minutes.

Eyelid surgery is also the best treatment for getting rid of dark circles above the eyes and getting rid of dark circles around the eyes via the same technique.

Blepharoplasty procedures start from £4,000, however every individual is different, and an accurate price will be quoted depending on your individual needs on consultation with your surgeon. Book a consultation today at our clinic to find out exactly what your surgery will cost and what will be required for your particular case. 

Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin. The foreskin is the retractable fold of skin that covers the end of the penis. It's a continuation of the skin that covers the whole penis.  In the most common procedure, the foreskin is opened, adhesions are removed, and the foreskin is separated from the glans.

A full or regular circumcision involves total removal of the foreskin, leaving the glans completely uncovered. The cut is done behind the crown of the glans, in an area where the skin is much less elastic. 

A partial circumcision consists of not cutting the entire foreskin, but leaving a considerable amount of foreskin to cover the crown of the glans. The cut of the skin is made in the elastic area of the foreskin. 

The foreskin has protective, sensory, biomechanical, and immunological functions. Throughout life, the outer part of the foreskin protects the sensitive inner part of the glans from injury, abrasion, chafing, and infection. The foreskin keeps its mucosal tissue and the glans soft and moist so that it maintains sensitivity.

The foreskin also secretes immunological substances that fight infection, called lysozymes, and also produces natural lubricants, reducing the need for artificial lubricants during sex. 

In men, circumcision is sometimes considered a treatment option for the following conditions:

Tight foreskin (phimosis) – where the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the head of the penis (glans); this can sometimes cause pain when the penis is erect and, in rare cases, passing urine may be difficult.

Recurrent balanitis – where the foreskin and head of the penis become inflamed and infected.

Paraphimosis – where the foreskin can't be returned to its original position after being pulled back, causing the head of the penis to become swollen and painful; immediate treatment is needed to avoid serious complications, such as restricted blood flow to the penis.

Balanitis xerotica obliterans – a condition that causes phimosis and, in some cases, also affects the head of the penis, which can become scarred and inflamed.

Cancer of the penis – a very rare type of cancer that can occur in men, where a red patch, wart-like growth or ulcer appears on the end of the penis or under the foreskin
In most cases, circumcision will only be recommended when other, less invasive and less risky treatments have been tried and haven't worked.

The procedure is usually performed under general anaesthetic, which means you'll be unconscious throughout the procedure, however if you prefer a local anaesthetic which will numb your penis and the surrounding area during the operation, this can be arranged. 

We may give you an injection of antibiotics before the procedure, after you have been checked for any allergies to prevent post-operative infection, however this is decided on the day in consultation with your surgeon and anaesthetist.  

Circumcision is a relatively simple procedure. An incision will be made just below the head of the penis and the foreskin will be removed using a scalpel or surgical scissors. This leaves the glans (head of the penis) completely. Any bleeding can be stopped using heat (cauterised) and the remaining edges of skin will be stitched together using dissolvable stitches. These stitches usually disappear within 2 - 4 weeks.

A circumcision should not be a painful procedure, however this depends on the individual. It is more a dull ache than a sharp pain once the feeling returns. At the Cadogan Clinic, a circumcision is performed under day case surgery with general anaesthesia. This means you'll be unconscious throughout the procedure and won't feel any pain. 

You may experience some discomfort and swelling around the head of your penis for 3 - 4 days following the operation, however before leaving the clinic you will be painkilling medication to help manage this. You shouldn't feel any pain or discomfort while passing urine.

All surgical procedures are associated with an element of risk. Your surgeon will explain the risks for a circumcision to you in your consultation and will give you the opportunity to ask questions. 

In the UK, complications after circumcisions carried out for medical reasons are rare and most men don't experience any significant problems. Apart from the initial swelling, bleeding and infection are the two most common problems associated with circumcision, however these are rare and can be easily treated and managed if they do occur.

With the removal of your foreskin, the end of the penis will feel different and you may have less sensitivity over time.

There are a few things which you need to do before undergoing circumcision, these include:

Avoiding eating or drinking at least 6 hours before surgery. You are allowed small sips of water up till 2 hours before.

Clean and shave the pubic area the night before your surgery and bring a pair fitted briefs to wear afterwards to keep the surgical dressing in place. Continue to wear these at home until the swelling and soreness has eased.

Arrange for someone to accompany you home after the operation. 

You will need to stop smoking prior to surgery as this interferes with the healing of the wound. Smoking can also slow this down your recovery in general. Your surgeon will advise timeframes in your consultation.

You should not consume alcohol at least 48 hours before surgery as it may reduce the effectiveness of the anaesthetic and dehydrate you.

You should not need time off work unless absolutely necessary; but you may experience some pain and discomfort the first few days after surgery which can be a distraction, so arrange with your employer accordingly.

There may be some pain and discomfort following circumcision surgery which can be easily treated with painkillers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol. 

Drink plenty of liquids as this will dilute the acidity of the and will also reduce any soreness or stinging when passing urine. The penis will be red, swollen and sore for the first few days after surgery but this will ease.

You may also experience:

Swelling – you can expect a little swelling and bruising at the wound site. There may also be a bit of oozing yellow coloured fluid. This is normal and nothing to worry about, although it may take about 3-4 weeks for your wound to heal completely.

Stitches – these will dissolve or fall out on their own about 14 to 21 days after the operation. Some of the last pieces may take four to six weeks to dissolve or disappear. They do not need to be removed.

Wound dressing – you will have a dressing on the penis following your operation. However, this will be removed before you go home or you will be instructed to remove it later that day if there has been no bleeding from the wound site. You should not require a dressing after that. 

Bleeding - It is possible you may have some bleeding from the foreskin, although this is unusual. If bleeding does occur, use a clean cloth and press firmly on the area that is bleeding for 15 minutes. If the bleeding does not stop, get in touch with your surgeon. 

Glans sensitivity – the glans (head of your penis) will feel extra sensitive for the first two weeks after the operation. This will then settle down and over time you will notice that the glans becomes less sensitive than it was before the operation. 

Wound appearance – in the initial six weeks after the operation, the head of the penis and the skin around the wound site may appear swollen but this will settle down. By 6 months post-operation will have returned to normal.

Sexual activity – you should refrain from all sexual activity for four weeks after the operation.

A number of adults return to work as early as the next day so you should not need time off work unless absolutely necessary. You may experience some pain and discomfort the first few days after surgery which can be a distraction, so arrange with your employer accordingly. It is advisable to avoid heavy manual work for about a week.

A circumcised male may experience chafing and abrasion of the exposed glans against clothing, painful erections due to the tightened skin, scarring, and desensitisation. A circumcised penis may also be slightly smaller than it would otherwise have been.

Some sexually transmitted infections appear more common in uncircumcised men. Two particular concerns for circumcised men are that:

1. It's unclear whether male circumcision can help prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While men are less likely to notice the symptoms of the STI chlamydia (an incidence which is increasing in the UK), heightens their risk of passing it on, there have been several studies into male circumcision and the risk of other STIs, but the evidence to date has been inconclusive and conflicting. Circumcised males also appear more likely to develop penile warts.

2. In regards to HIV/AIDS, there is conflicting advice. There have been several trials carried out in Africa that suggested that circumcised men have a lower risk of acquiring HIV from infected women, however the international not-for-profit health organisation the Cochrane Collaboration reviewed all the research into circumcision and HIV and concluded that there is insufficient evidence to support the idea that circumcised men have less chance of contracting HIV. To date there is no solid conculsion either way.

Evidence shows that men can reduce the risk of an STDs by using a condom.

A circumcision at the Cadogan Clinic starts from £2,000. 

There are three main nipple and areola conditions treated by nipple surgery:

+ Nipple Reduction is carried out to reduce the height and width of the nipple whilst preserving its sensation a can be very effective at relieving embarrassment associated with this condition. It can be carried out under local anaesthetic as treatment as well as recovery is quick and straightforward.

+ Areola Reduction is a swift and straightforward procedure that removes the excess brown area from around the nipple. Small reductions leave an inconspicuous scar around the base of the nipple. Larger reductions can leave a scar around the outside edge of the areola – both techniques can be carried out under local anaesthesia.

+ Nipple Inversion is when the nipple itself lies flat or inverts inwards towards the body rather than protruding in the normal way. This condition can occur from birth but in some cases, can develop later on in life. This is typically another swift and straightforward procedure that can be carried out under a local anaesthetic although different grades of inverted nipples require different complexities of surgery.

Each of these surgical procedures is straightforward and can either be carried out on their own under a local anaesthetic or as part of a more complex breast procedure.

Areola reduction surgery refers to any nipple reduction surgery that specifically relates to the changing of the size or shape of the areola region around the nipple.

The dark skin area around your nipples is called the areola. If you feel this area is too large you may be a candidate for areola reduction surgery.

Areola reduction surgery is performed by removing a circular area of the outer brown area of the areola to reduce it in size.

Areola reduction is usually performed under local anaesthetic and takes about one hour. In some rare cases, general anaesthetic may be used.

There surgical techniques associated with the various nipple conditions vary slightly from one another:

+ Nipple Reduction – the most popular involves elimination of a strip of skin about the neck of the nipple which is closed and sutured reducing the height of the nipple by pushing a portion of the nipple back into the breast tissue. This is a very straightforward procedure and is often performed under local anaesthetic.

+ Areola Reduction - Areola reduction is a quick and simple procedure that can be performed on both men and women. It involves removing the excess brown or pink area surrounding the nipple which usually has a diameter of between 4-5cm. Areola reduction usually begins with your surgeon removing a circular segment of the outer brown area of the areola. The skin surrounding this is then brought inwards in a purse string fashion to surround the areola.

+ Nipple Inversion surgery is usually carried out under local anaesthetic and in one of two most common ways. The first begins with an incision to allow lifting of the nipple and areola tissue whilst remaining attached to the breast, the ducts are separated and the nipple is allowed to sit proudly in its new position. The second method is the incision is made at the base of the nipple and the shortened milk ducts are detached completely allowing for a natural looking projection of the nipple.

Nipple size or appearance can often change through weight gain, weight loss or pregnancy but can also be caused by hormonal imbalances and genetics. Conditions such as gynaecomastia can also cause nipples to appear oversized in proportion to the rest of the chest.

Nipple surgery will be performed by one of our highly trained plastic surgeons.

Your nipple (and/or areola) reduction consultation will also be an opportunity for you to ask the surgeon about anything you are uncertain of.

Some things you might want to ask may include:

+ Are my expectations realistic for nipple surgery?
+ Do you have any before and after pictures of previous nipple reduction surgeries?
+ Where will the scars be and how will you minimize them?
+ How long is the recovery period?
+ Will my nipples be sore after surgery?
+ How soon until I can see the final results?

Nipple reduction surgery is normally performed under local anaesthetic which means you are awake during the operation.

If you would prefer your nipple reduction surgery to be performed under a light general anaesthetic, this can be arranged with your surgeon prior to surgery.

The reason nipple reduction takes place under local anaesthetic is that it is a very quick and straightforward procedure that takes around 20 minutes to treat each nipple. The procedure involves the excision of the nipple tissue to reduce its size; the scars post-surgery will be minimal and virtually undetectable as they are well hidden on the underside of the nipple where it meets the areola.

During your consultation, you can expect your surgeon to examine your breasts, go over your surgical options and ask you for a complete medical history and current list of medications. Your surgeon will listen to your aesthetic concerns and explain the procedure to you. They will give you an idea of what your areolas and nipples will look like after the surgery.

Your experienced Cadogan Clinic surgeon will give you pre-operative advice at your initial consultation and this may include stopping smoking and taking certain medications such as aspirin which will delay your healing.

Many of these procedures can be easily accomplished under local anaesthesia. For the larger procedures or for preference you may decide to have our gentle form of anaesthesia, TIVA (Total Intravenous anaesthesia) in this case, you'll be asked to arrange a ride to and from the procedure, as you'll be unable to drive after surgery.

You will need to fast for 4 hours, although sips of water are permissible for up to 2 hours before surgery. It's also best to come to surgery without any make-up or cosmetics, without wearing any jewellery and in comfortable, loose fitting clothes.

During your consultation, you can expect your surgeon to examine your breasts, go over your surgical options and ask you for a complete medical history and current list of medications. Your surgeon will listen to your aesthetic concerns and explain the procedure to you. They will give you an idea of what your areolas and nipples will look like after the surgery.

Your experienced Cadogan Clinic surgeon will give you pre-operative advice at your initial consultation and this may include stopping smoking and taking certain medications such as aspirin which will delay your healing.

Many of these procedures can be easily accomplished under local anaesthesia. For the larger procedures or for preference you may decide to have our gentle form of anaesthesia, TIVA (Total Intravenous anaesthesia) in this case, you'll be asked to arrange a ride to and from the procedure, as you'll be unable to drive after surgery.

You will need to fast for 4 hours, although sips of water are permissible for up to 2 hours before surgery. It's also best to come to surgery without any make-up or cosmetics, without wearing any jewellery and in comfortable, loose fitting clothes.

You will start to see an immediate, visible improvement as soon as the stitches are removed in the days after surgery.

You will be able to see your final results and the shape of the nipple and areola within 2-3 months of the procedure, once the areola has settled into its new form and the scar has settled.

Yes your results will be permanent.

This procedure is not particularly painful, and the pain can be managed with over the counter painkillers, such as paracetamol and anti-inflammatory medicine.

Nipple reduction is very safe, minor surgery.

You will need a protective dressing for at least a week following surgery. This can be disguised with loose clothing. There may also be stitches to remove after 7-10 days.

Exercise including brisk walking should be avoided. However, you are not in significant pain and capable of working from home the next day.

Normal work depends on travelling issues and how physical it is. You may need to take one week off work following an areola or nipple reduction/correction surgery, perhaps longer if your job requires anything very physical.

Strenuous activities, heavy lifting and intense exercise should be avoided for around 6 weeks following your surgery.

You should be back to your regular routine and exercise after 4+ weeks of surgery.

Recovery from Nipple Reduction surgery is quick with very little disruption to your normal routine.

You may experience some bruising and swelling in the area operated on, however, this will usually fade in a couple of days.
Our surgeons use very fine stitches that will dissolve and fall out naturally over the course of a week or so. This procedure is not particularly painful, and the pain can be managed with over the counter painkillers, such as paracetamol and anti-inflammatory medicine.

During the healing and recovery process, you should be able to return to your normal daily activities just a few days following your surgery, depending on your tolerance of the swelling. We recommend avoiding any strenuous activities, or heavy lifting, for at least 4 weeks following the surgery. Wearing a good support bra for the weeks following the surgery is also recommended for women.

Scarring post-surgery will be minimal and virtually undetectable as they can be well hidden on the underside of the nipple where it meets the areola.

When the nipple is a different colour than the skin surrounding it, often the scar will blend in and appear more natural.

Our highly skilled surgeons will focus on retaining the connections between the breast tissue and the skin, to preserve the ability to breastfeed

Whilst we are unable to guarantee that you will be able to breastfeed after surgery, it is certainly an aim of your surgeon at the outset.

If you have recently had a baby and are currently breastfeeding, your surgeon may require you to wait for 3 to 6 months before you have a nipple reduction. This is so that your breasts and nipples can settle before the procedure.

Currently, there are no options other than surgery to reduce the size of the nipple or areola, or change nipple or areola shape.

A protruding nipple can be fixed by trimming the skin and bulk of the nipple to shrink its overall size. It is similar to other procedures that remove excess tissue from the body, but in this case, the procedure is on a much smaller scale and scars insignificant.

Around one in ten women in the UK suffer from nipple-related conditions where the nipples may be irregular or enlarged causing them to protrude through clothing. Protrusion can be a source of embarrassment as well as pain and irritation known as 'jogger's nipple'.

Protruding nipples can be an issue for men too. Underlying breast tissue may, in addition, push the nipples outward and require reduction. This condition is called Gynaecomastia.

Nipple correction is about ridding the patient of their social anxiety or embarrassment and physical pain from their condition.
Protruding nipple correction at our Clinic can reduce the height and width of the nipple while still preserving sensation. Nipple correction can easily be combined with other procedures, so you only have to go through the process of surgery once.

If you find your self-image and your confidence comprised by protruding nipples, the solution may be easier than you thought. The procedure is relatively simple and straightforward. It can be carried out under local anaesthesia or in combination with other procedures (under general anaesthesia).

Recovery from protruding nipple surgery is quick with very little disruption to your normal routine. Nipple correction surgery is an outpatient procedure. Since there is no long rest period following the procedure you will be back in the swing of things with newfound confidence in no time.

Puffy nipple is a nipple or areola that forms a puffy nipple mound away from the normal curve of the chest. Puffy nipple can occur in both men and women, but is more common among women. Puffy nipple is also common among teenagers experiencing puberty, as this is a key time of breast development.

Puffy nipple is easily fixed by nipple reduction surgery.

‘Puffy nipple’ can be caused by genetics and hormonal changes, as well as array of external factors including diet, medications or steroid use.

Many symptoms of ‘puffy nipple’ can be reversed by diet and exercise, or stopping the use of certain medications. In many cases, however, the symptoms of ‘puffy nipple’ can only be resolved via puffy nipple reduction surgery.

Inverted nipple is a nipple or areola that forms an inverted nipple mound that points inward or flat from the normal curve of the chest. Inverted nipple can occur in one breast or both. Inverted nipple can occur in both men and women.

Inverted nipple can be classified in three grades:

- Grade 1: the inverted nipple can easily be pulled outwards, and reacts to stimulation
- Grade 2: the inverted nipple can be pulled outward but reverts quickly original shape
- Grade 3: the inverted nipple cannot be pulled outward at all

Inverted nipple reduction surgery is typically necessary in instances of Grade 2 and Grade 3.

‘Inverted nipple’ can be caused by genetics, as well as an array of external factors including age, breast feeding, or injury.

By far the most effective treatment for ‘inverted nipple’ is inverted nipple reduction surgery. Inverted nipple surgery takes less than an hour and takes place under local anaesthetic.

A nipple reduction procedure will solely address problems with the size and shape of the nipple itself, or the surrounding areola (in the case of an areola reduction or correction).

Wider concerns relating to the size and shape of the breast region will need to be addressed via other surgeries. These can be easily be combined with nipple reduction into one larger operation.

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Will I require a single surgery or multiple surgeries?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of implant replacement procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

After your surgery, you will be asked to come in for a post-operative appointment to come back and see our nursing staff at the Clinic between 1 and 2 weeks after your surgery. At this point your incision sites will be reviewed, and your preliminary healing will be assessed.

After 6 weeks your surgeon will personally review your progress – again at the Clinic - and make sure you are recovering as expected. In addition, they will remove any stitches and advise you on the need for further dressings.

Throughout the recovery period you will have full access to our 24/7 on call nursing service, and full access to the Clinic and our post-operative facilities.
Our aim is to make you feel as comfortable as possible during the entirety of your recovery period.

As your anaesthetic or sedation wear off you will wake up in our recovery facilities at the Clinic. You may feel a little drowsy but this often wears off within a few hours. After several hours in recovery, you will eat and hydrate. At that point, you will be allowed to leave the Clinic by our nursing staff.

It is common to feel a little pain and discomfort in the immediate aftermath of surgery. This will wear off in due course. Our 24/7 on call service is open to all patients for any question or query they may have at this time.

You will not be able to drive yourself home after the surgery. You should arrange for someone to pick you up and take you home. In addition, you will need to ask someone to stay with you for the first 24 hours after your procedure.

One of the major benefits of day case surgery and the anaesthetic used at the Cadogan Clinic (TIVA) is that recovery is typically very swift and patients can be back at work and active very shortly after the procedure. Whilst the extent of such activity should be gradually phased in, you should be back at work within a week or two and exercising within four to six weeks.

We always advise that you return to low impact activities first like walking and cycling before you are able to reintroduce more strenuous activity such as lifting heavy weights and doing intense aerobic activities.

Final results are typically first seen six or so weeks after your procedure, with ongoing improvements beyond this point likely as the healing process fully completes over the next 3 months or so.

Your surgeon will be able to give you specific guidance at your consultation.

Certain lifestyle factors can increase the risk of complications during and after your surgery. These include smoking, drinking alcohol, being overweight and taking drugs (for medical or recreational use.)

The most common impact of smoking before your surgery is that it increases your chances of developing an infection and inhibits your body's natural healing processes. We insist that all patients stop smoking and using nicotine products at least six weeks before surgery. Reducing alcohol intake is also strongly advised.

Your doctor will discuss your current BMI and drug use at your consultation and advise you further on this.

A breast implant is a foreign body that does not occur naturally in the human body. When a foreign body is introduced to the human body, the human body recognises it as foreign and organically forms a fibrous tissue capsule around the entire implant. This occurs with a breast implant and is completely normal and expected.

The capsule formation process will be slightly different from person to person, however. In those who form more scar tissue (who 'scar easily'), the breasts develop an excessively hard or high volume of tissue around the breast, which may form with the muscular tissue and cause it to contract.
This is called Capsular contracture, and can cause problems with the appearance of the breast implant, deforming the size, shape and proportions of the breast. The contractions themselves can also be uncomfortable for the individual.

Breast Implant Replacement surgery is effective surgery in which the capsule can be removed (Capsulectomy) and a new implant inserted around which a new, healthy capsule can be formed and the original desired aesthetic restored

PIP implants were cheap silicone breast implants that were found to contain an unapproved silicone gel with potential health risks. They were also revealed as prone to splitting and up to six times as likely to rupture as high quality, approved implants.

PIP implants were largely used by low-cost, chain cosmetic providers due to the fact that they were the cheapest on the market. Almost 50,000 women in the UK received these implants.

Understandably, once this was found out by regulators, many women who had received the PIP implants wanted them removed or replaced, even though no link was ever directly proven to serious health complications.

During this crisis, the Cadogan Clinic became one of the most prominent corrective implant Clinics in the country, since we never used PIP products and enjoy a reputation as one of the leading specialist plastic and cosmetic clinics in the country. We continue to see PIP patients today

Signs of a ruptured implant include:

- swelling or a lump around the breast
- a change in the shape of the breast
- redness, pain or a burning sensation

If you have any of these symptoms of a ruptured implant you should seek immediate medical advice. Typically you will require a scan to confirm you have ruptured implants.

Ruptured implants need to be removed or replaced as soon as they have been diagnosed.

Breast Implant Replacement surgery is relatively straightforward surgery.

Most implants can be removed quite easily, even under local anaesthesia. Polyurethane covered implants (Polytech) can be more difficult to extract, if one wants to remove all the foam covering.

Surgery time is commonly no more than an hour or two.

The breast will typically resume a normal shape and volume in the few weeks following surgery.

In some instances, particularly in older patients, there may be some excess skin or tissue caused by the effects of ageing or by stretching during pregnancy or weight gain.

Some patients elect to have a combination mastopexy (breast lift) at the same time to ensure to this loose skin is pre-emptively tightened around the new breast mould or even excised completely. This procedure can also ensure an optimal breast and nipple position is delivered, and that the breasts feel firmer following surgery.

Breast implants do not have an expiration date so you may not need to replace them at any stage following surgery.

Breast implant replacement surgery, or a change of implants, is typically only necessary when the breast implants no longer looks or feels good.

Sometimes a change of implants is necessary after childbirth, or due to the natural effects of ageing or following weight loss. In each instance, saggy breasts or asymmetric breasts can easily be corrected by a change of implants.

Breast Implant Removal differs from Breast Implant Replacement in so far as the implant is removed and not replaced during such surgery.

After Breast Implant Removal the skin and tissue will retract to how they were before your initial breast implant surgery, meaning that in all likelihood no additional procedure will be required to restore your previous look.

In some instances, however, natural fat transfer breast augmentation alternatives might be necessary to counteract any appearance of breast deflation or emptiness.

Breast implant removal surgery is not usually required following breast implant surgery, and is only necessary in the rare instances where there is a complication following surgery. This could be capsular contracture or a ruptured breast implant.

We would typically ask you to get a scan to confirm what has happened, before coming in for a breast implant removal consultation with your surgeon.

Breast implants do not have an expiration date. It is not the case that implants should be replaced every 10 years. If implants are looking good and feeling good there is no reason to change them.

Breast Implants only need to be replaced in the very rare case whereby they break or rupture, which is usually a result of sub-standard implants or sub-standard surgery. This is not serious or a health risk, but may cause a change in shape or feel of the implant necessitating its removal.

Implants can also be replaced for personal reasons, including wanting to change the shape or size of the implants, breasts change due to weight loss or gain, age or having children.

If you think you require breast implant removal then we recommend you get in touch with your surgeon to discuss this immediately.

Implants that require removal or replacing must be removed addressed swiftly, particularly in the case of ruptured implants or capsular contracture.

All of our breast surgeons perform breast implant removal surgery at the Cadogan Clinic. Breast implant removal is straightforward surgery and takes no longer than one hour to complete.

The Cadogan Clinic has become a well-known provider of implant replacement services as our reputation as a trusted cosmetics provider was enhanced following the PIP scandal that implicated so many of our competitors.

As one of the few Clinics in the country not to use PIP products and insist on higher quality products, we were at the forefront of the replacement drive. It remains one of our most commonly performed surgical procedures at the Clinic to this day.

The most common oral medications prescribed in patients with erectile dysfunction are Sildenafil, Tadalafil and Vardenafil. All these medications help to enhance erections and therefore do not trigger automatic erections as injections instead do. Therefore sexual stimulation is necessary for these medications to work.

The most common side effects of these medications are headache, facial blushing, upset stomach and mild temporal visual effects (only for Sildenafil).In most cases, the side effects are minor and tend to reduce with time. Therefore only very few patients decide to discontinue the treatment due to side effects.

There is no definitive test for PADAM and low blood levels of testosterone alone are insufficient to make the diagnosis.

The combination of several different suggestive symptoms and physical signs, together with low blood levels of testosterone, should raise suspicion that PADAM is present. Androgen ѕubѕtіtutіоn thеrару іn young men wіth primary or ѕесоndаrу hуроgоnаdіѕm hаѕ bееn used fоr уеаrѕ аnd саn bе соnѕіdеrеd evidence-based. Also androgen substitution thеrару in elderly mаlеѕ with ѕеvеrе hуроgоnаdіѕm hаѕ proven beneficial.

Clinical signs аnd ѕуmрtоmѕ of hypogonadism consist оf physical аnd рѕусhоlоgісаl ѕуmрtоmѕ such аѕ dесrеаѕеd muѕсlе mass аnd bone dеnѕіtу, іnсrеаѕеd subcutaneous аnd аbdоmіnаl fаt mass, fаtіguе, decreased energy lеvеl, dесrеаѕеd lіbіdо and соgnіtіvе dуѕfunсtіоnѕ. Androgen ѕubѕtіtutіоn therapy іmрrоvеѕ аll оf thеѕе symptoms in ѕеvеrеlу hypogonadal mаlеѕ, аnd іѕ thеrеfоrе warranted аt аll ages.

Sуmрtоmѕ еxреrіеnсеd by еldеrlу mаlеѕ are non-specific and vague, аlthоugh ѕоmе mау be similar tо ѕуmрtоmѕ of hуроgоnаdіѕm. Thеrеfоrе, іt has bееn suggested that thе ѕlіghtlу dесrеаѕіng testosterone levels wіth аgеіng соuld ассоunt fоr ѕоmе of thеѕе symptoms. In line wіth thіѕ hypothesis, thе tеrm `andropause' hаѕ been suggested fоr men, although no accurate dеfinіtіоn fоr thіѕ tеrm еxіѕtѕ.

Alternative nаmеѕ fоr аndrораuѕе have been ѕuggеѕtеd іnсludіng mіd-lіfе сrіѕіѕ, male mеnораuѕе, аndrоgеn dеfiсіеnсу іn ageing mаlеѕ (ADAM) оr раrtіаl аndrоgеn deficiency in аgеіng mаlеѕ (PADAM). Furthermore, possible еffесtѕ оf рhаrmасоlоgісаl tеѕtоѕtеrоnе trеаtmеnt in otherwise healthy elderly mаlеѕ with ѕоmе symptoms of аgеіng and testosterone lеvеlѕ іn thе lоw±nоrmаl rаngе hаvе been argued fоr, іn аnаlоgу wіth еffесtѕ оf еѕtrоgеn replacement therapy in peri-menopausal wоmеn.

In trulу hуроgоnаdаl mаlеѕ, appropriate ѕubѕtіtutіоn dоѕеѕ оf testosterone аrе rarely аѕѕосіаtеd wіth side-effects. Hоwеvеr they do occur if еxсеѕѕіvе doses are administered. Furthеrmоrе, ѕіdе-еffесtѕ mау оссur mоrе frеquеntlу whеn testosterone lеvеlѕ are nоrmаl bеfоrе thеrару. A retrospective аnаlуѕіѕ of long term tеѕtоѕtеrоnе replacement іn 45 еldеrlу mаlеѕ (bаѕеlіnе testosterone 11 nmol/l) demonstrated that 84% tolerated trеаtmеnt wеll and rероrtеd an іmрrоvеmеnt of lіbіdо.

 

As this is a complex condition that can present itself in a variety of ways. At present, a practical approach is probably the most helpful. If multiple symptoms of PADAM are present your consultant may recommend a 'therapeutic trial' of testosterone supplement therapy for up to 3 months. If there has been no improvement in symptoms, after 3 months of therapy, then continuation of treatment is probably not worthwhile.

A very high placebo response to treatment probably occurs, so it is important to check that the improvement is maintained over time.

Men receiving testosterone supplements should have regular medical checks every 3 months for the first year of treatment, which must include a rectal examination of the prostate gland (which sits beneath the bladder producing fluids that nourish and protect sperm) and a Prostate Specific Antigen blood test. The latter two tests indicate whether or not a risk of prostate cancer exists. Abnormalities in either test should be investigated as testosterone replacement therapy is contraindicated in men with proven prostate cancer. After that period, at least yearly checks are necessary.

Testosterone is available as:

- injections (eg Nebido, Sustanon, Virormone)
- patches (eg Andropatch)
- gels (eg Testim gel, Testogel).

Capsules do not always provide steady blood levels. Patches are probably the easiest form of testosterone to use, although they are reasonably expensive.

All these preparations can only be prescribed under specialist's advice.

A vasectomy, also known as male sterilization, is a quick and virtually painless surgical procedure. The tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis are sealed preventing pregnancy. The procedure is effective and permanent and you will be able to return home the same day.

In the male genitalia, there are two tubes, called vas deferens which carry sperm to the penis. A vasectomy disrupts each vas deferens preventing sperm entering and activating semen.

So, what happens to the sperm? Sperm cells stay in your testicles and are absorbed by your body. After 3 months of vasectomy, your semen won’t contain any sperm, so it can’t cause pregnancy. But this does not mean that you are not going to have semen. You can still ejaculate semen without the sperm.

Vasectomies at the Cadogan Clinic are carried out as a day case surgery under local anesthetic. This means that only your scrotum will be numbed, and you will be awake for the procedure. You will not feel any pain, although it may feel slightly uncomfortable.

Occasionally patients prefer a general anaesthetic, but it is still a day case procedure. At the Cadogan Clinic we use TIVA (Total IntraVenous Anaesthesia) which is light and allows you to go home early.

It's common to have some mild discomfort, swelling and bruising of your scrotum for a few days after the vasectomy. If you have pain or discomfort, you can take painkillers, such as paracetamol.

It's common to have blood in your semen in the first few ejaculations after a vasectomy. This isn't harmful.

It is advised that you wear close-fitting underwear, such as Y-fronts, to support your scrotum and help ease any discomfort or swelling. Make sure you change your underwear every day.

It is safe for you to have a bath or shower after your operation –make sure you dry your genital area gently and thoroughly.

Most men will be fit to return to work one or two days after their vasectomy, but you should avoid sport and heavy lifting for at least one week after the operation. This is to minimise the risk of developing complications.

You can have sex again as soon as it is comfortable to do so, although it is best to wait for a couple of days. However, you will still have sperm in your semen immediately after the operation, as it takes time to clear the remaining sperm in your tubes. It takes an average of 20-30 ejaculations to clear the tubes of sperm completely. You will need to use another method of contraception until you have had two clear semen tests.

Thus, don’t have sex immediately after the procedure; you should wait until you don’t feel any pain around the surgery site and comfortable to have sex. This may mean waiting a week or more after your procedure, it depends. Also, sex can hurt after vasectomy as it may cause mild pain, soreness and bruising around your scrotum, blood in your semen and other symptoms which can last from a few days to a few weeks.

Once the operation has been carried out successfully and semen tests have shown that there is no sperm present, long-term partners may not need to use other forms of contraception.

However, a vasectomy does not protect against HIV infection or any other STI's, so you should still use condoms with any new partner.

After the vasectomy, there will be some sperm left in the upper part of the vas deferens tubes. It can take more than 20 ejaculations to clear these sperm from the tubes so, during this time, there is still a risk of pregnancy. Until it has been confirmed that your semen is free of sperm, you should continue to use another form of contraception.

At least eight weeks after the procedure, you will need to produce a sample of semen, which will be tested for sperm. This will also help to identify the rare cases in which the tubes naturally re-join themselves. Once tests have confirmed that your semen is free of sperm, the vasectomy is considered successful and you can stop using additional contraception.

A few men continue to have small numbers of sperm in their system, but these sperm do not move (they are known as non-motile sperm). If you are one of these men, your doctor will discuss your options with you. The chances of making your partner pregnant may be low enough to consider the vasectomy successful, or you may be advised to have further tests or consider other options.

It is possible to have a vasectomy reversed. However, the procedure is not always successful. You have a better chance if it is done very soon after the vasectomy. But it is worth mentioning that this procedure is more complicated than vasectomy itself.

If a reversal is carried out within 10 years of your vasectomy, the success rate is about 90%. This falls your reversal is carried out more than 10 years after your vasectomy. As shown above, success rates are not perfect and there is no guarantee. Moreover, pregnancy still may not happen after a vasectomy reversal because your sperm may be less mobile than they were before.

 Even if a surgeon manages to join up the vas deferens tubes again, pregnancy may still not be possible. This is why you should be certain before going ahead with the vasectomy.

- The failure rate is only one in 2,000 – out of 2,000 men who have a vasectomy, only one will get a woman pregnant in the rest of his lifetime.
- There are rarely long-term effects on your health.
- Vasectomy does not affect your hormone levels or sex drive but rather it makes your sex better.
- It will not affect the spontaneity of sex or interfere with sex.
- Vasectomy may be chosen as a simpler, safer and more reliable alternative to female sterilization.
- Vasectomies are easier and less expensive than female sterilization.
- Vasectomies are permanent and the success rate reaches more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy.
- Vasectomy doesn’t require hospitalization of the patient as the operation takes only 15-20 minutes.

The disadvantages of a vasectomy are:

+ You need to use contraception after the operation until tests show your semen is free of sperm.
+  If your semen contains sperm, you could make your partner pregnant.
+  As any surgery, complications can occur –risks are rare, but can include long-term testicle pain, haematoma, infection, bleeding, bruising, or swelling after the procedure.
+ Vasectomy doesn’t prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STDs).
+ Vasectomy is not immediately effective as it may take 2-3 months to get tubes clear from sperm.
+ You need to keep using contraception for 2-3 months after surgery.
+ Vas deferens tubes could reconnect, but this is very rare. 

At the Cadogan Clinic we are passionate about scar management. This is because with due care and consideration, a far superior outcome can be achieved on a patient by patient basis, if the right process is adopted from the outset of treatment and the right treatments applied.

We have the skills in-house to dramatically improved patient outcomes, and we are passionate about delivering them to the widest possible audience via our programme.

The Cadogan Clinic has a specific After Surgery Regime available to all patients and is of particular importance for patients with long scars in important areas, such as a facelift, breast or abdominal surgery.  We are also able to treat patients who have a problem with poor scars.  We believe that prevention is the proper response and have made specific treatments available, such as the Icon Laser combined with a bespoke treatment plan depending on the patient needs.

Our Surgeons can influence the quality of the scar by choosing the optimum position and orientation. For instance, a vertical scar in front of the ear will be a good scar, while a transverse scar across the cheek will be a poor scar.  Our Surgeons aim to keep the scar as short as possible and to repair the wound with appropriate stitches.  Any conventional stitch through the skin will need to be removed early to avoid stitch marks.  In many areas of the body, the Surgeon will choose use dissolving suture materials under the skin, thus avoiding stitch marks altogether.

Any signs of slow healing or infection are treated promptly by our expert team.  Prolonged redness or raised keloid scars are treated early, as well as patients with olive or darker skin may develop extra pigmentation around the scar, called post-inflammatory inflammation (PID).

We usually recommend our rhinoplasty patients to take at least one week off work, as you will be wearing a splint for up to ten days. There is no reason however, why you should not be working from home. There may be some bleeding from the nostrils overnight or for longer if the septum or turbinate's have required treatment. You are likely to have some swelling and bruising below the eyes, if the nasal bones have been fractured. This is completely normal and will subside within the ten days. We also tell patients to avoid strenuous exercise for at least two weeks following the operation.

Patients with chronic disease need to be in the best possible condition ahead of surgery. For instance, diabetes should be well controlled to avoid infection, anaemia should be treated to speed healing. Nutrition should be good. Obese patients tend to heal poorly and suffer more infections, whilst undernourished patients may be short of vitamins need to assist healing and recovery.

Our patients are generally fit and well-nourished and are unlikely to be deficient in vitamins or other elements and need not adjust their diet. Smoking is always bad for healing and patients undergoing facelifts, breast reductions and lifts and abdominal reductions should stop smoking three weeks before surgery.  If smokers are also overweight then the risk is greatly increased. 

Scars tend to be sun sensitive although healing is not delayed.  It is patients with olive or darker skin who need particularly to avoid sunshine or to use a factor 50 sunblock.  All our patients should be using the silicone dressing supplied to them which incorporates a sun factor (Kelocote SF). 

Exercise will tension the wound and should therefore be reduced within the first two weeks, however some patients will be prepared to sacrifice the quality of the scar in order to maintain exercise.  These will include our professional athletes who need to be back within days.  Patients who wish to go back to the gym early should discuss this with the Surgeon before so they can accommodate and adjust the type of suture material used. 

There are two parts to this answer. How long does it take to resume full normal activities and how long does it take for the nose to reach its final state? There is a huge time difference between the two. There is also individual variation.

Patients are usually surprised that the operation is virtually painless. We use Total IntraVenous Anaesthesia (TIVA) and therefore you wake up quickly from the operation and will not feel sick. You will be ready to go home within an hour or two. Expect some bleeding from the nostrils and you will find a gauze dressing strapped under the nose. This will be changed as necessary by the nurse whilst you are in the hospital and by yourself at home.

The bleeding usually stops by the next morning and be replaced by a clear ooze which tends to coagulate around the nostrils and internal sutures. Just keep this clear on the outside with tap water. The inside is unimportant. The nurse will deal with this when you come back at a week. The internal sutures dissolve on their own, but she will remove any skin sutures at the same time.

There is often bruising around the eyes. It is not painful. It appears quickly after surgery but settles equally quickly. The last remnants under the eyes go by 10 days.

Most patients, where the bones are fractured, will have a plastic or plaster of Paris splint over the nose, which is removed in 7 to 10 days. This is the moment of revelation. However, the nose is not how it will finally end up. It will be swollen and without definition. The tip, in particular, may at this stage appear unchanged. The actual final shape will take 6 to 12 months to settle. You will get some idea when this is, when the skin feels normal and all stiffness has gone. You need to be patient.

You are not ill after surgery, just a little bruised with a splint. You should not exercise for a couple of weeks, but you can do most other things if you don’t mind people seeing you. It is the same splint for a broken nose, and this would be the obvious white lie to explain it.

There are two parts to this answer. How long does it take to resume full normal activities and how long does it take for the nose to reach its final state? There is a huge time difference between the two. There is also individual variation.

Patients are usually surprised that the operation is virtually painless. We use Total IntraVenous Anaesthesia (TIVA) and therefore you wake up quickly from the operation and will not feel sick. You will be ready to go home within an hour or two. Expect some bleeding from the nostrils and you will find a gauze dressing strapped under the nose. This will be changed as necessary by the nurse whilst you are in the hospital and by yourself at home.

The bleeding usually stops by the next morning and be replaced by a clear ooze which tends to coagulate around the nostrils and internal sutures. Just keep this clear on the outside with tap water. The inside is unimportant. The nurse will deal with this when you come back at a week. The internal sutures dissolve on their own, but she will remove any skin sutures at the same time.

There is often bruising around the eyes. It is not painful. It appears quickly after surgery but settles equally quickly. The last remnants under the eyes go by 10 days.

Most patients, where the bones are fractured, will have a plastic or plaster of Paris splint over the nose, which is removed in 7 to 10 days. This is the moment of revelation. However, the nose is not how it will finally end up. It will be swollen and without definition. The tip, in particular, may at this stage appear unchanged. The actual final shape will take 6 to 12 months to settle. You will get some idea when this is, when the skin feels normal and all stiffness has gone. You need to be patient.

You are not ill after surgery, just a little bruised with a splint. You should not exercise for a couple of weeks, but you can do most other things if you don’t mind people seeing you. It is the same splint for a broken nose, and this would be the obvious white lie to explain it.

You can view before and after nose job images in our Before and After Nose Job Gallery on this page.

At your consultation, your consultant will also share more extensive examples of rhinoplasty before and after results they have achieved.

We feel strongly that you can best understand what might be possible for you and your nose by reviewing the results of previous nose contouring and nose reduction operations.

It is very rare to be able to get your nose job on the NHS as it is considered a cosmetic surgery. It may occasionally be possible to get your rhinoplasty on the NHS if it is ascertained that the surgery is for medical reasons, but this is very rare.

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of facelift procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

As we age our skin loses its elasticity, and the underlying tissues lose their volume, as well as bone losing its structure. A facelift works by repositioning the soft tissues and skin to its former level and plumping out the soft tissues to give the refreshed look of natural youth.

A facelift is regularly done as a Day Case procedure, under local or TIVA, our gentler version of general anaesthesia. The procedure may take several hours, but you, the patient, will be able to go home to rest on the day of the surgery.

For a full standard facelift, the surgeon creates an incision in the front of the ear, up towards the hairline and behind the ear into the scalp. He or she will then lift the skin up off the face, gently pulling it into an upwards direction and removing any excess skin.

Depending on your individual case, the surgeon is likely to also tighten the SMAS, the deeper tissues on the face, or perform a neck lift to tighten the skin around the chin and jowls. Once the procedure is completed, the incision will be closed with staples or sutures, and dressings will be applied.
These days we generally use fat grafting in association with non-surgical procedures to help fill in concaves in the face that occur with age. There are numerous types of facelifts, depending on the results you're looking for, and the condition of your skin, your surgeon will decide what is best for you and make recommendations.

After your surgery, you will be asked to come in for a post-operative appointment to come back and see our nursing staff at the Clinic between 1 and 2 weeks after your surgery. At this point your incision sites will be reviewed, and your preliminary healing will be assessed.

After 6 weeks your surgeon will personally review your progress – again at the Clinic - and make sure you are recovering as expected. In addition, they will remove any stitches and advise you on the need for further dressings.

Throughout the recovery period you will have full access to our 24/7 on call nursing service, and full access to the Clinic and our post-operative facilities.

Our aim is to make you feel as comfortable as possible during the entirety of your recovery period.

As your anaesthetic or sedation wear off you will wake up in our recovery facilities at the Clinic. You may feel a little drowsy but this often wears off within a few hours. After several hours in recovery, you will eat and hydrate. At that point, you will be allowed to leave the Clinic by our nursing staff.

It is common to feel a little pain and discomfort in the immediate aftermath of surgery. This will wear off in due course. Our 24/7 on call service is open to all patients for any question or query they may have at this time.

You will not be able to drive yourself home after the surgery. You should arrange for someone to pick you up and take you home. In addition, you will need to ask someone to stay with you for the first 24 hours after your procedure.

You will need to avoid exercise for a few weeks, but you will be able to back in front of a computer as soon as the next day. There will be some swelling and bruising at the incision areas, which is normal and will fade in time and heal over the next week or so. You should be back at work after 2 weeks.

You may have heard or read online about patients, who are in pain with considerable swelling for weeks or months following a facelift, but this is highly unusual. It may be the result of poor technique or deep plane facelift, where all the soft tissues are lifted off the bone and placed at a higher level.

While this can give good results, we at the Cadogan Clinic, do not feel that the discomfort and long recovery time of this deep plane technique is worth it. We focus on getting you lasting, impactful results, without unnecessary downtime and pain or discomfort.

Final results are typically first seen six or so weeks after your procedure, with ongoing improvements beyond this point likely as the healing process fully completes over the coming 12 months.

Your surgeon will be able to give you specific guidance at your consultation.

Facelift results are essentially permanent but surgery will not stop your face from naturally ageing. For patients who take care of their skin, avoid smoking and excessive sun exposure, it should be possible to enjoy the benefits of a facelift for many years, having essentially 'put the clock back' a decade or so following surgery.

You should expect to retain the benefits from your facelift surgery. If it makes you appear 10 years younger, you should always retain that 10-year advantage.

There are also many non-surgical procedures that can be used to maintain results on an ongoing basis beyond surgery and keep your face looking young and fresh.

These are all offered at the Cadogan Clinic, and include:

+ Anti Ageing Injectables, e.g. Botox
+ Dermal Fillers
+ Lasers
+ Chemical skin peels

The latest and possibly the best adjunct is Stem cell treatment.

+ Don't smoke! Smoking ages you, accelerating the ageing process dramatically.
+ Drink less alcohol! Alcohol dehydrates your skin and we want your skin to remain firm and supple in order for results to be long-lasting.
+ Keep a healthy weight! Significant weight fluctuations can change the shape and elasticity of the skin on your face. To remain that vibrant, youthful look following your facelift, avoid or cut back on alcohol.
+ Drink lots of water! Water hydrates your skin, it keeps the face looking full and fabulous.
+ Always wear sunscreen! Every day- no exceptions. The sun damages your skin, causes wrinkles and advanced ageing.
+ Take care of your skin! Following the instructions laid out to you by your surgeon for proper aftercare are of the utmost importance. It's also important to use high-quality skin creams, serums and to continue having professional treatments such as peels, fillers or Botox to continue to support your desired aesthetic.

Certain lifestyle factors can increase the risk of complications during and after your surgery. These include smoking, drinking alcohol, being overweight and taking drugs (for medical or recreational use.)

The most common impact of smoking before your surgery is that it increases your chances of developing an infection and inhibits your body's natural healing processes. We insist that all patients stop smoking and using nicotine products at least six weeks before surgery. Reducing alcohol intake is also strongly advised.

Your doctor will discuss your current BMI and drug use at your consultation and advise you further on this.

Aside from lifestyle factors, there are other external factors that determine how long a facelift will last, such as age of the patient and the condition of the patient's skin.

Darker skin that is in a healthy condition will respond better at the time of the surgery, as opposed to fairer skin that has sun damage or is thinner. However, patients who are under the age of 60 typically have the longest lasting results.

The skill of the surgeon and the technique used are also an important factor in the longevity of a facelift.

Your surgeon will give you specific advice on how to wash and bathe after the surgery.

In general, you may gently shower and wash your hair 48 hours after a facelift surgery, taking particular care on the treated areas. You can also blow dry your hair on a cool setting. Be gentle when brushing or combing your hair so that you do not catch your comb in the suture lines. You must follow your surgeon's specific advice.

It is normal to feel a little self-conscious when you are in public following facelift surgery due to the visible swelling, redness and bruising that will inevitably occur on the face during the preliminary recovery phase.

The vast majority of bruising and swelling should have comfortably settled by around 2 to 3 weeks, so it is at this point that you should first plan to be seen by friends and colleagues.

Full recovery can take several months, so we do advise you plan well ahead to ensure that you give yourself enough time to recover before a major event such as a wedding or birthday. We would recommend allowing between 2 to 3 months.

It is typically possible to start wearing makeup again 2 weeks after your procedure. At this point, you can then use camouflage or concealer cosmetic products to cover any remnant bruising you may still have.

Of all the scars you may have from plastic surgeries, scars on the face are the best of the whole body. They are not only well hidden, but also settle efficiently. For most healthy people, surgical scars from a well-performed facelift do not cause any issues.

Even for patients who produce keloid scars can consider having a facelift, even though they will require extra Scar Management during their aftercare treatment.

Facelifts are becoming less invasive and scars fewer. Nevertheless, the standard scars themselves are short and hidden around the contours of the face, in the front of the ear, under the earlobe and in the crease behind the ear.

It is perfectly possible to carry out a facelift under a local anaesthetic, but most of our patients prefer the type of general anaesthesia we give at the Cadogan Clinic (Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (T.I.V.A.)) for full facelift surgery.

TIVA delivers anaesthetic intravenously via a computerised pump able to monitor anaesthetic levels closely. This close calibration allows your anaesthetist to keep you at a relatively shallow level of anaesthesia, meaning your sickness is minimal following your procedure and you can start your recovery quickly. You will also be allowed home an hour or two after the surgery is completed, even if the surgery has taken several hours.

Local aneasthetic or sedation are better options for less invasive facelift surgery such as mini-lift or micro-lift surgery.

Plastic surgeons tend to be sceptical of non-surgical injection-led treatments when it comes to delivering long lasting facial rejuvenation results.

However, we do recommend non surgical alternatives for younger patients or patients with only minor signs of ageing.

There are limits, however. It is very difficult to fix drooping, sagging older skin. with a non-surgical facelift. You also cannot expect full resolution of deep wrinkle lines and drooping skin with fillers and injections, and of course, over time fillers fade and need to be replenished.

There are also various laser and high energy device rejuvenation treatments that we offer at the Cadogan Clinic, such as Laser Resurfacing, IPL, and Ultherapy. These treatments can be sufficient for some patients, but this depends entirely on the condition of the skin.

We typically recommend non-surgical treatments as a maintenance adjunct to surgical treatment, wherever possible. Surgical facelifts remain the better option to ensure dramatic, long lasting results. When it comes to drooping, sagging skin and deeply set wrinkles on the face, a surgical facelift is the best option.

In sum, whilst non surgical treatments can delay the effects of ageing to a certain superficial level, but the emptiness of the face and folds of loose skin will require surgery.

Breast lift surgery, also known as breast mastopexy, is an operation which lifts and reshapes the breasts using various techniques to rejuvenate the look of low-hanging, ‘empty’ or saggy breasts. Lifting the breasts also lifts self-confidence.

A surgical breast uplift (or breast mastopexy), is often combined with a restoration of volume with implants or fat grafting (lipofilling) to provide an immediate solution to restoring youthful, firmer breasts.

You are a good candidate for breast uplift (breast mastopexy) surgery if:

+ You have low-hanging ‘saggy’ breasts and would like lifted, firmer breasts
+ You are in good overall physical health and you do not have any illnesses or diseases (e.g. diabetes and obesity may delay healing)
+ You are in good overall mental health and you are fit to make good decisions regarding surgery
+ You acknowledge the risks and side effects that might happen after the procedure, e.g. slow healing and scars that take time to settle
+ You have logical and reasonable expectations for the results of the surgery
+ You are happy to follow all post-surgical instructions provided by your surgeon
+ You do not smoke

Breast lift surgery or mastopexy is performed under general anaesthesia as a day case procedure. At the Cadogan Clinic, we use TIVA (Total IntraVenous Anaesthesia), so you wake up quickly and do not feel sick. You are ready to go home. Pain is minimal, but you will be given simple analgesia as a stand-by.

There are various methods of breast uplift, but essentially the breast tissue is repositioned higher as a firm mound, the nipples put at the appropriate level with matching areolas and excess skin removed.

This will always necessitate a scar around the areola, the darker skin around the nipple. This may be adequate for a small breast lift, but usually more skin has to be removed leaving a vertical scar below the nipple and frequently another horizontal one in the fold beneath the breast. These scars are on the underside of the breast and therefore less obvious. Inevitably they will be red, to begin with, but with The Cadogan Clinic, scar treatment will eventually become inconspicuous.

The specific mastopexy used by your surgeon will depend on the size and shape of your breasts, skin elasticity, the size of your areolas, and the expected extent of the lift. Immediately before surgery, your surgeon will mark the breast lift on the skin in a standing position, establishing the position of the nipple on the lifted breast.

Yes. There are several options.

 A breast lift without implants (mastopexy) will give you a natural and more youthful breast shape by raising the position of the nipple and removing excess skin. This procedure elevates your nipple-areolar complex and reforms the natural breast tissues restoring your breasts to their youthful perky position. A mastopexy provides an opportunity to improve shape and symmetry. The correction of droopiness is a considerable confidence boost.

Most women, who want to regain their youthful appearance and correct the effects of ageing and pregnancy, prefer this procedure. The breasts will look smaller but that is just an illusion as only a small amount of skin tissue is removed. A mastopexy results in minimal changes in breast volume.

Lipofilling or fat grafting to the breast will lift the breasts in a similar way to using implants but has the added advantage that the shape can be adjusted by the placement of the fat. This is particularly good for filling the upper breast recreating that fullness of youth and defined cleavage.

The volume of the breast is not reduced significantly in a breast uplift surgery (mastopexy) procedure, so it’s more a case of re-shaping the volume you already have. Breast lift without implants generally results in minimal changes in breast size and volume because only a small amount of skin tissue is removed.

The usual outcome of the mastopexy procedure is a perky and curved breast with improved symmetry that will give you a youthful appearance. If the uplift is combined with a breast augmentation, then the cup size will obviously increase in proportion to the size of the implant; your surgeon will guide you in this regard.

Breast uplift surgery with implants results in a significant increase in breast size and volume. This gives you a better cleavage as compared to mastopexy alone. Mastopexy is the best option for you if you are craving for perky round breasts.

Different techniques may be required for different patients. This is often due to the age of the patient, the size of the breast, the amount of breast tissue to be removed and also depending on the end result the patient is looking for.

There are four main types of breast lift surgery technique:

Crescent Lift – involves a crescent of skin removed at the top of the nipple to improve nipple position. This is the least invasive breast lift.

Benelli Lift – Otherwise known as a Circumareolar Lift. This is best used for slight nipple asymmetry or a mild lift. A doughnut-shaped incision is made around the areola to remove tissue and the skin is then ‘purse-stringed’ to tighten the breast skin. It is less invasive than full mastopexy. A flattening effect on the breasts may occur.

Lollipop Lift – Or Vertical Scar Mastopexy. A lollipop-shaped incision is made from the crease of the breast vertically and surrounds the nipple. This is a very effective lift for many women with low hanging breasts.

Anchor Lift – For significant breast droop. This is when the incision is made similar to the lollipop, but also travels along the breast crease, forming an anchor shape. This is the most invasive breast lift procedure, but very effective for women with a long inframammary fold (distance from breast crease to nipple).

It is true that no woman has perfectly symmetrical breasts. However, there is a point where the difference in size and shape becomes, first noticeable to the patient, and then to others, causing distress. The asymmetry may also involve the chest wall (pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum).

The exact procedure will need to be customized to the patient and may involve augmentation, reduction and very likely an uplift or mastopexy on one or both sides.

The patient is quite likely to have a preference for one breast over the other and want to match the other one to it.  A common abnormality is the tubular breast or conical breast where there are varying degrees of large nipple mound and constricted base to the breast.

Surgery offers a good solution to the problem of uneven breasts and understanding surgeons at the Cadogan Clinic will need to discuss your precise requirements.

There is no durable way to lift and reshape sagging breasts without some type of surgical intervention. There are certain lasers, radiofrequency and ultrasound machines that can tighten the skin, however, if you require a significant lift this will not be sufficient. However, there are some natural methods you may attempt prior to seeking surgery if that is your desire. Keep in mind that for 99% of cases, surgical intervention is the only way to see viable results.

Here are some natural suggestions sometimes advised.

Firstly, exercise or working out is the first way. Pectoral muscles can be trained and toned to have a natural lift. Examples of the exercises include pushups, weighted chest presses, weighted chest fly’s, and the elbow squeeze.

Secondly, diet also could help in lifting the breast. Avoid excessive fatty proteins food like red meat and fried foods. You have to focus on vitamins, minerals and calcium by eating cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and cabbage.

Thirdly, do some massage to your breast as massage supplies your exercise program. With massage, you can use specific kinds of oils that help in preventing wrinkled skin and stimulate blood flow.

Fourthly, sleeping on the back is very beneficial to not cause sagging breast.

Fifthly, swimming for half an hour in the pool on a daily basis can greatly tighten up the muscles of the breast so this will cause great results to your breasts.

Finally and most importantly stop smoking is a very important way to have lift breast as smoking is one of the main reasons behind sagging breast. 

There is no durable way to lift and reshape sagging breasts without some type of surgical intervention. There are certain lasers that can tighten the skin, however, if you require a significant lift this will not be sufficient.

Breasts sag after weight loss because the ligaments that support the breast and the breast skin only have a limited ability to retract as the fatty element of the breast lose volume.

The skin envelope is relatively larger and the internal ligaments are overstretched by this point.

This effect can be compounded by genetic variance in skin elasticity and natural collagen levels. Patients, who naturally have large breasts, will also always suffer more than those with a flat chest since there is a greater weight and more to sag. Pregnancy can have the same effect.

The solution is to remove the sagging skin by breast lift (mastopexy) or increase the volume via a breast augmentation or natural breast augmentation, or a combination of the two.

It is usually recommended that patients should be 18 years old before undergoing cosmetic breast surgery. The argument is that the breasts may still be developing and, if surgery is too early, this development may continue requiring more surgery later. It is also felt that psychologically development is also incomplete.

However, there are good reasons why early surgery might be sensible. The breasts may be deformed, unequal in size and or very large, all causing psychological harm, which could be averted by surgery. The common deformity is tubular or conical breasts. On these occasions, the surgeon is likely to ask for confirmation from the parent, GP, and psychologist.

We use a variant of the general anaesthesia technique called TIVA (Total Intravenous Anaesthesia) that is delivered by our team of top anaesthetists. Intravenous delivery enables our anaesthetist team to monitor anaesthetic depth more closely via specialised computers to maintain an optimal level of anaesthesia. This means you will wake up feeling much better than with traditional alternatives and ready to go home shortly after.

“How long does a breast lift last?” is one of the most common questions a woman asks when she plans a breast lift. Well, it is possible to obtain long-lasting results from a breast lift. However, the truth is there is no single answer. Once a lift is performed your breasts will have a better shape, lifted and fuller, but your breasts are constantly ageing along with the rest of your body.   It takes time for the breasts to sag again and be reassured that most patients find that the one lift or mastopexy is adequate.

A true answer would be that it depends on the age, pregnancy, health, skin tone, weight of breasts, body weight and lifestyle of the woman.

You should not forget that the technique employed in the mastopexy is all important in determining not only the shape , but also the longevity of the result.

 

+ SURGERY TIME: 2 hours
+ HOSPITAL STAY: Day case
+ SLEEPING POSITION: Sleeping on back recommended for 1-2 weeks.
+ REASONABLY MOBILE: 1 day
+ WASHING: Shower after 1 week
+ DRIVING: 2 weeks
+ EXERCISE INCLUDING GYM: 6 weeks
+ SEXUAL ACTIVITY: Restricted activity after 4 weeks
+ FULL RECOVERY: 6-8 weeks
+ TIME OFF WORK: 1-2 weeks
+ BRAS & GARMENTS: Sports bra worn for 8 weeks
+ RESTING: 2-3 days
+ MEDICATIONS: Pain relief
+ PROCEDURE: Administration of anaesthetic medicine, incision and stitching
+ STRENUOS ACTIVITY: 1 month
+ EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT: Restricted for one year
+ REMOVAL OF STITCHES: After 1-2 weeks
+ SWELLING AND EDEMA: Several days
+ DISCOMFORT: Few weeks
+ BREAST IMPLANT MASSAGE: 5 times per day

You will need to wear a garment day and night for at least three weeks after breast reduction surgery, and may be for as long as 6 - 8 weeks.

Whilst different surgeons will operate according to slightly different protocols following breast reduction surgery, you will need to wear a garment for at least 3 weeks after your breast reduction surgery.

This might be a specialised lycra compression garment made specifically for those who have recently undergone breast reduction surgery, or simply a sports bra depending on your surgeons preference.

Either way, the compression garment is worn to support the breasts and protect the wounds. It is particularly necessary for when you are undertaking more vigorous activity and exercise.

Sensation loss is rarely an issue after breast reduction surgery, but on occasion can occur.

Women with very large breasts often never have significant feeling in the nipples and in the event that sensation is reduced after breast reduction surgery, it is unlikely to be missed.

Following traditional techniques, you should expect a small degree of scarring. There are of course different techniques for a breast uplift procedure and the scars created will depend on the technique employed as well as the patient, lifestyle and the level of ptosis (droop) of the breasts to begin with. Most commonly you should expect scarring around the nipple, across the natural fold underneath the breast and a vertical scar linking the nipple scar to the breast fold scar.

The cost of breast uplift surgery very often varies depending on your individual needs, but prices typically start from £8000.

A breast lift (mastopexy), like any surgery, requires a skin incision and will leave a scar. Scarring fades nicely with time, but the final outcome is not something any surgeon can promise. A patient's propensity for good healing is genetic as well as technique dependent. In addition, scars near the middle of the chest have a greater tendency to keloid and those to the outer side of the chest may stretch. This is why we try to keep cars short and towards the middle of the breast.

But there are some ways that can minimize scars. Our surgeons advise patients to apply silicone gel or sheeting to the young scars until they are mature. This period can be 3 months or up to a year.

At Cadogan Clinic we offer the Cadogan Clinic Scar Program that will ensure your scars heal nicely. Feel free to contact us for a consultation to go over the scar after-care program with one of our doctors. We use a variety of treatments including specialized lasers.

Our expertise means that we see patients from elsewhere who have problems of shape and size in addition to poor scars and these patients may need surgery.

It is recommended that you take 2 to 3 weeks off from work however if you have a sedentary job one week is adequate. If you have an active hobby or leisure interest, please seek advice from your surgeon as to when you will be able to return to it following surgery.

If possible, avoid flying for the first six weeks. Do not sit out in strong sun for the first 2 weeks after surgery. 

Theoretically, you should be able to breastfeed so long as the milk ducts (channels from the gland to the nipple) are not cut during surgery.

In breast augmentation, the implant is placed behind the breast tissue. When incisions are made under the breast or in the armpit, the gland and ducts are not disturbed. A cosmetic incision around the areola extends directly through the breast and although a few ducts may be cut this does not matter in practice and most ducts remain intact.

With a breast lift or mastopexy, the gland and ducts are not disturbed.

In a breast reduction, part of the gland is removed, but it is already too large and theoretically, this should not matter as long as ducts still connect and drain the remaining breast. Older techniques would have cut many ducts, but newer techniques leave many ducts intact. This is a point to discuss carefully with your surgeon.

A point to remember is that many patients, particularly those with very large breasts are unable to breastfeed anyway and it is difficult to know after surgery whether you might be one of these and the inability to breastfeed is nothing to do with surgery.

Grafted fat is mostly placed around the edge of the glandular tissue and would not affect feeding. When fat is placed into glandular tissue, there may be pressure on the gland and ducts, but one would not expect this to be a long term issue. You will not be pregnant at the time of surgery and there will be plenty of time to settle in.

Occasionally patients with extremely large breasts are treated with a method which involves temporarily removing the nipple and areola completely, thus dividing all the ducts for certain. At the end of the procedure, the nipple is grafted back. All patients are told that they will never breastfeed. However, there are occasionally cases where patients were able to breastfeed after this.

Remember, there are a number of factors you should consider when determining which procedure is right for you. Each type of breast surgery will give you a different end look and may come with different concerns. It is important for you to keep that in mind when weighing other factors such as breastfeeding in the future.

Be open and honest about your plans, goals, and concerns with your surgeon during your consultation and rest assured that you’re in the best of care at the Cadogan Clinic.

We recommend that you do not sleep on your stomach immediately following surgery, perhaps for as many as two weeks.

Instead, we recommend you sleep slightly elevated on your back in order to reduce swelling.

You may find it useful to keep a pillow against one or both of your sides to tuck you into place. The pillows will help keep you from rolling in your sleep and unintentionally causing yourself more discomfort.

After a breast lift surgery procedure, the breasts will be supported in the bra; they will be swollen, firm and lumpy in the first few postoperative weeks. The breasts start to soften after around 6 weeks, and by 3 months the swelling should have gone down, leaving you with your new shape.

Massage/moisturize – Treat the whole breast, including scar. Use the palm of your hand in a gentle circular motion, using a moisturising cream for dry skin, e.g. E45. This helps to soften your skin, adjacent tissue, and adjust to its new contour. Experience how your breasts feel before letting anyone else touch them.

After the first 2 weeks, start returning to your normal activities of living. Be sensitive to your body and try not to do too much too soon. Therefore, if you experience any pain, stop and try again another day. You can drive and start lifting light objects if you feel comfortable. Gym activities, aerobics or sports that involve using your arms should be avoided for 6 weeks. You may start lower leg exercise after 4 weeks. You can start lifting your elbows above your shoulders, washing your hair, getting the washing off the line, etc.

This is completely normal and your surgeon will be able to assess how best to correct these variances during your procedure.

The nipple may be numb or hypersensitive immediately after the operation and it may then take some time (commonly up to a year) to fully recover and regain full sensation

There is not an easy answer. Opinions vary.

Traditionally patients were asked to massage the breasts after augmentation in order to stretch the pocket the implant lies in and thereby reduce the risk of the formation of a tight capsule deforming the shape. It might have helped.

Nowadays the surgical pockets are made to exact size and capsules, although still a problem, are less common. The usual advice is now to support the breasts in the correct position with a sports bra or medical equivalent for weeks or months.

Massage has never had a place in other types of breast surgery such as breast reduction, breast lift or mastopexy or breast reconstruction.

Again massaging scars has been almost universal as a means of helping them mature. There was nothing else to do.

Scar management at The Cadogan Clinic is now important with several levels of treatment. Sometimes massage is part of this. This applies to all scars and all types of breast surgery.

 

You can view breast lift before and after images in our Breast Lift Before and After Gallery on this page.

At your consultation, your consultant will also share more extensive examples of breast lift before and after results they have achieved.

We feel strongly that you can best understand what might be possible for you and your breast area by reviewing the results of previous breast uplift procedures

Saggy breasts are caused by the onset of age, childbirth and extreme changes in weight. With time youthful, perky breasts typically give way to saggier breasts.

The best solution for saggy breasts, and the restoration of more youthful perkier breasts, is via a breast mastopexy or breast uplift procedure.

Your saggy breasts are restored into more youthful, perky breasts over the cause of the procedure, with excess tissue excised and the breast mound repositioned.

The ageing process does continue beyond this, but you can expect your previously saggy breasts to remain youthful, perky breasts for a long time after surgery.

A breast mastopexy or breast uplift procedure is the most effective means for getting firmer breasts, often in combination with breast implant surgery.

Your surgeon will advise you on how to get firmer breasts and the best options available to you.

It is not possible to perform a breast lift without surgery. The scale of the procedure requires surgical intervention to ensure meaningful results are delivered.

Non surgical breast lift options such as push up bras and massage will not deliver the same results as their surgical alternatives.

Any promise to deliver a meaningful breast lift without surgery or lift your breasts naturally should be treated with extreme caution and care.

A Neck lift is a surgical contouring procedure designed to remove a surplus of loose neck skin and eliminate fat deposits in the neck region, and restore a more youthful, defined neck and jawline.

The choice of procedure depends on the exact condition (excess loose skin or excess skin and excess fat deposits) but will involve skin excision, or a combination of skin excision and liposuction.

The procedure is carried out as a day case procedure under General Anaesthesia, and takes 2 hours.

There is typically bruising for a few weeks with end results at about 3 months. Scars are insignificant and managed by our Scar Management programme.

A neck lift can result in a more defined, slender neck and jawline, but the procedure may not be for everyone. It's important when undergoing any type of surgical procedure that you're in good health.

If you're age 40 and above, then you may want to consider a neck lift if you're unhappy with any of the following conditions;

+ Loose or drooping skin
+ Excess skin
+ Skin damaged by sun and the elements
+ Excess fat on the neck obscuring the usual sharp angle between the chin and the neck
+ Double chin
+ Jowls or hanging skin at the neckline and jawline
+ Neck banding

If you are under 40 years of age, it might be better to consider a non surgical alternative such as botox, fillers or Ultherapy.

The best candidates for a neck lift will have:

+ Good skin elasticity – ideally the stretched skin remains elastic and will conform to its new position
+ Good physical health – generally being healthy is important before any surgery. Serious medical conditions, a high BMI and smoking can all increase the risk of complications. You should have stopped smoking at least 6 weeks before surgery.

Loose sagging skin in the neck area can be caused by a number of common factors:

+ Genetics, occurs naturally
+ Dramatic weight loss
+ Ageing
+ Lifestyle factors, e.g. excessive sun exposure, smoking

A' Turkey Neck' or 'wattle' refers to the loose skin hanging down in the midline from the chin to the neck. It is a consequence of ageing, where the skin loses its elasticity and takes the shortest route from the chin to the neck. It is typically worse, when there has been significant weight loss.

Neck Lift surgery is the obvious and most effective and predictable procedure to treat this.

One of our highly trained, elite plastic surgeons will perform your Neck lift.

All our Neck lift and liposuction specialists have been hand picked by Mr Bryan Mayou, our founder, and the pioneer of liposuction in the UK.

Neck lift costs start from £3,900. Neck lift costs can vary according to the size and scale of the operation.  

Neck lift cost of surgery includes your all your post-operative care and 24/7 nursing assistance and ongoing scar management. 

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Will I require a single surgery or multiple surgeries?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of Neck lift procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

No special preparation is required although it is generally advisable to do the following before any surgery

+ Stop smoking. Smoking decreases blood flow in the skin and can slow the healing process. If you smoke, your doctor will recommend that you stop smoking before surgery and during recovery.
+ Avoid certain medications. You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase bleeding.
+ Arrange for help during recovery. Make plans for someone to drive you home after you leave the hospital and stay with you for at least the first night of your recovery at home.

Neck lift surgery should take no more than two hours.

You should start to see results in the days following surgery. These will fully start to appear from around the six week mark and improvements will be ongoing for the first 3 to 6 months.

Your results will be long lasting and you should see the difference for between 10 – 15 years.

That said, the ageing process will continue from your new post-procedure point, and skin laxity will gradually increase over time. The ageing process will start from a far better point however, so it should be many years before this becomes noticeable again.

You can protect encroachment on your results by avoiding excessive amounts of sun exposure and maintaining a stable weight.

You will not feel any pain during the procedure as you will be under the influence of anaesthetic.

Immediately following surgery, you may experience discomfort but any pain should be tolerable. Your surgeon can provide painkillers for this and the majority of patients no longer need them a few days after neck lift surgery.

Neck lift surgery is straightforward, safe surgery although you should be aware of all the risks and complications before going ahead with surgery. Some are listed on this page, but your surgeon at your will go through these at length and in full at your consultation

Neck tightening surgery is not an especially painful procedure, though you may experience slight discomfort, due to the tightness of the skin.

There are some common side effects involved with a neck lift surgery, none of which are very extreme. With modern techniques pain and swelling is slight. You may or may not take the simple painkiller provided by your surgeon. You may also experience some bruising, which will naturally fade over the next two weeks. Any scars that you have following the procedure are well hidden and will also fade over time. We offer an excellent scar aftercare treatment programme to ensure that your scars remain as minimal as possible.

The skin itself may feel numb after surgery, but sensation will return over the next few weeks. Men may find shaving odd during this period. Be gentle with your neck area when washing, shaving etc.

A skilled surgeon can minimise neck lift surgery scars and place them expertly in locations where they are not visible to the eye. Neck lift surgery scars take some months to settle in, but your surgeon will try and confine the scarring to the neck folds.

Neck lift surgery scar visibility can also be impacted by the level of scar aftercare you receive. By way of example, neck lift surgery scars can be reduced by regular moisturisation and massage techniques, all of which our dedicated team will advise our patients in the days following your procedure.

Recovery time for this procedure will depend on the individual patient.

We usually advise that you take around two weeks off work following surgery as there will be bruising and swelling which may take around 10 days to subside. We also recommend you do not resume exercise for 4 – 6 weeks.

In the following few weeks, as you heal, smoother skin will appear on the neck and your scars will start to heal.

Our expertise in scarring techniques along with our highly-experienced surgeons ensure a great result, especially as these are usually not visible and hidden behind the ears.

You may continue to experience some mild, periodic discomfort and swelling during this time, but such feelings are normal. Severe pain, bleeding or swelling should be reported to your surgeon.

You will receive more detailed advice from your surgeon ahead of surgery

You will need to wear a tight fitting compression head bandage for a few nights, but this can be taken off soon after. If there has been liposuction under the chin to create a sharper jawline definition, a chin strap is recommended by some surgeons at night only for a further week.

Swelling and bruising is minor in most cases and can be easily covered. It is also temporary and should last just a matter of days.

That said, your lower face and ears may appear swollen in the first few days following surgery and during this period recovering patients will typically avoid going out in public.

We also recommend scarves and high sweaters to conceal swelling, as well as styling long hair to cover up stitches.

This really is only necessary for a few days following procedure and within a week or ten days you should be back to your daily routine.

A Neck lift isn't for everyone. Your doctor might caution against a Neck lift if you:

+ Have a severe chronic condition, such as heart disease or diabetes
+ Plan to lose a significant amount of weight
+ Have a body mass index that's greater than 32
+ Are a smoker
+ Have an unstable mental health condition

For the first four weeks after your surgery, you will need to avoid all sport and strenuous exercise. During this time, we recommend going on gentle walks to keep active, which in turn will help with your recovery.

After week four, you will be able to start doing some exercise again. However, you should still avoid strenuous activity and contact sports. After six to eight weeks you should be able to resume all sports and exercise. This includes contact sports and weightlifting.

You should ask your surgeon for specific timeframes of when you will be able to return to sport and exercise.

You should be able to take a shower 48 hours after your neck lift operation.

You will need to wash the wound carefully and ensure it heals well. This may involve application of an antibiotic ointment after your shower.

It is also important that you dry your incisions having washed and bathed them. If you need to use a hairdryer to dry your hair, it must be kept on a cool setting.

You should also take care when brushing your hair around your ears and suture sites.

There are many alternative non surgical solutions for neck lift surgery, ranging from fillers and Botox to simple laser surgery under local anaesthesia and Ultherapy.

These are typically not as effective as surgical solutions, and have results that are not as long lasting.

For a full discussion on the various pros and cons, you should speak to one of our specialist plastic surgeons.

A neck lift cannot change your fundamental anatomy (e.g. the position of the Adam's apple) and cannot stop the ageing process in its tracks.

A neck lift should therefore be considered an effective restorative surgical treatment for the neck area.

As a neck lift only adjusts the skin and muscles of the neck, it will also only address the excess or sagging skin around the neck. It will not resolve the visible signs of ageing that may appear in other areas of the face, such as sagging skin and wrinkles of the forehead or cheeks.

You may need to consider the following surgical procedures if you want to target these other areas of your face:

+ Facelift– this will smooth and tighten the skin of the lower half of your face 
+ Brow lift – this can reduce forehead wrinkles by lifting the brows 
+ Blepharoplasty– this can correct sagging of the eyelids and eye bags 

It is possible to perform a neck lift under local anaesthesia.

That said, it requires large amounts of local anaesthetic to ensure you do not feel anything during the procedure, and you will be awake during the procedure. This means you will feel pulling and tagging, and this can be disconcerting for some patients. You will also need to stay completely still for anything up to 3 hours on the theatre table.

It is also possible to have the treatment under Sedation, whereby painkillers and sedatives are administered via an IV drip. Anaesthetic options will be discussed at your consultation.

Even though the visibility of bruising, stitches and dressings is carefully minimised, some people will be more sensitive about these side effects than others.

You may choose to take some extra downtime in order to heal and allow the swelling to reduce before returning to work or regular social activities if you don't want other people to see the stiches and bruises. The main bandage is removed within 48 hours. Bandages are reasonably well hidden around the ears or under the chin. You can leave them open or cover with tape.

Bruising from liposuction is surprisingly slight in this area, and normal activities can be resumed within a day or two. Men do occasionally have a little more, bruising because of the increased blood supply to the beard. Following your surgeon's instructions on how to care for the bruising and swelling will be the best way to ensure a speedy recovery with less downtime.

If you have had a general anaesthetic, then you will need to have a sensible person with you overnight to help take care of you, as you may continue to feel groggy and sleepy, or disoriented.

A little help with some physical activities around the home would be useful for a few days in order for you to rest, relax and recover. Try not to have your head down and maybe sleep with an extra pillow.

Any liposuction incisions may or may not be sutured, but other stitches are generally removed a week or so after surgery.

Ultherapy rejuvenates sun damaged skin and tightens it. It can, therefore, be very useful for the early treatment of these problems, when they first arise, pushing back the time that a proper surgery will be needed. With luck, you may avoid surgery altogether.

Ultherapy uses micro-focused ultrasound to lift up and tighten loose skin over a period of several sessions, with minimal downtime for yourself. This non-invasive procedure uses ultrasound to stimulate the growth and formation of new collagen deep inside the skins layers. New collagen takes time to produce, so the results are not seen immediately, but will become more apparent over 2-3 months' time. The procedure itself is short, taking between 30-90 minutes per session depending on which area you're having treated.

Another use for Ultherapy is as a secondary treatment after a face or neck lift to improve the skin quality of the final lift. If you are considering Ultherapy, consider whether a face or neck lift is more appropriate and vice versa.

We favour treatments that cause minimal disturbance to the patient, and consequently recommend Ultherapy as a viable alternative in cases where we think it can have a comparable impact to surgery.

If you are interested in hearing more about your options, speak to one of our plastic surgeons who can help talk you through the various pros and cons of each treatment.

You can view neck lift before and after images in our Neck Lift Before and After Gallery on this page.

At your consultation, your consultant will also share more extensive examples of neck lift before and after results they have achieved.

We feel strongly that you can best understand what might be possible for you and your neck anatomy by reviewing the results of previous neck lift surgery

Fat transfer to the face is an advanced surgical treatment which involves harvesting and filtering unwanted fat cells through liposuction techniques, then reinjecting them to either help rejuvenate and restore lost volume in the face.

The same technique can be used to improve the natural contours of the body and do the breast. This is most usually performed under either a local or general anaesthetic depending on the patient and surgeons' preferences and suitability.

Three things happen during the fat transfer to face procedure

+ Fat is taken from elsewhere by liposuction. This could be anywhere, but for convenience is often the abdomen or thighs and most commonly under local anaesthesia or sedation.
+ The fat is then processed by filtration and centrifuge spinning and put into small syringes for injection
+ The fat is then injected into the face

It is possible to combine this treatment with innovative rejuvenative stem cell treatments. Fat contains Stem Cells and their close relatives, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) which enhance fat transfer and improve skin and scar quality.

These can be extracted in the Cadogan Clinic from the fat and added to supercharge the fat to be transferred. Alternatively, they can be used on its own as a stem cells suspension or MSC enriched Nanofat.

When combined with more comprehensive liposuction, the donor site can be sculpted and contoured during the same procedure.

Fat transfer procedure times vary according to the amount of fat that needs to be harvested and then injected to deliver the desired results.

In practice, this is typically between 30 minutes and 1 hour for treatments to the face that do not require large volumes of fat to be harvested.

+ First the fat is harvested from elsewhere - often the tummy or thighs. If the aim is only to provide a little fat for the face then this might take as little as 20 minutes (this can take up to an hour for other fat transfer procedures where the donor area is sculpted following harvesting)
+ Then there is the processing of which there are several methods - washing, filtering and spinning. This takes no more than 5 – 10 minutes, although if refining stem cells for later injection, this can take much longer
+ Finally precise fat placement into the face can be done in 10 minutes, although for larger areas in the face this can take longer

There is a technique available at the Cadogan Clinic where a large quantity of fat is taken and then frozen and stored. Small amounts can then be taken from the store over months or even years to layer the fat, building up the contour. Each of these injection sessions can be carried out swiftly in a matter of minutes.

Fat obtained by liposuction can be grafted to the breasts, buttocks or anywhere in the body, but the commonest, and by far the most important area, is the face. But why the face?

Gravity was thought to be the major factor in facial ageing, with all soft facial tissue descending vertically as a result of thinning and sagging of retaining ligaments. In recent years, surgeons have now understood that the majority of the volume loss actually occurs at the bone and deep fat compartment level, which causes the ligaments loosen and the superficial layers to sag since the existing bony structures are no longer there to support them.

Fat is therefore an excellent volumizing resource to restore both structure and volume to the face. The ligaments face and skin in the mid face can be lifted back upwards, to rest on these restored structures.

Whilst fillers deliver a similar action in the early stages of ageing, such solutions are only temporary corrections given the dissolvable nature of dermal filler. By contrast the patients own fat is not only permanent, but it is often enriched with stem cells, meaning it can permanently replace volume and have regenerative effects on the overlying skin.

Some common treatment areas in the face include

+ Fat transfer to the cheek to restore volume lost by the resorption of bony and fat deposits with the passage of time, and restore the prominence of the cheek bone structure
+ Fat transfer under the eyebrows to lift both them and the upper eyelids, thus restoring the brow and opening the eye. This technique is now a standard adjunct to blepharoplasty (upper eyelid reduction)
+ Fat grafting of the ageing hollowness of the temple and adjacent forehead to restore that youthful shape.
+ Fat grafting to the pointed chin of older people to restore tissue loss and correct the shape

Fat grafting (fat transfer) of the face can be carried out as a procedure on its own or combined with other procedures on the face, such as face and neck lifting and blepharoplasty (upper and lower eyelid reduction). A useful thought is to consider fat grafting if you are having liposuction elsewhere since this fat can be usefully employed elsewhere in the body, and not simply thrown away.

The fat is taken from anywhere convenient or somewhere that you would like reduced. Generally, we use the lower abdomen, inner and outer thighs.

We only need small amounts for the face but may have to search harder for the larger amounts for augmenting the breasts or buttocks. Very slim patients may present a problem.

These donor areas will be bruised for three weeks and completely settle over three months.

Large amounts are of fat are not required, but it is nevertheless an opportunity to remove unwanted or stubborn fat from your body if you have some.

The fat is processed and sometimes enhanced with extra stem cells also obtained from fat to ensure a better take of graft, which will be important in smokers and those with poor healing.

To deliver the best results a certain level of fat is required and your specialised surgeon will be able to assess this during your initial consultation and examination.

The volumes required a very minimal however for an effective solution to the face, so it is very rare that we are unable to find sufficient deposits somewhere in the body.

On the rare occasion, very slim patients can present an insurmountable problem, but you will be advised by your surgeon at your consultation.

Obtaining (harvesting) the fat usually from the tummy of thighs is usually required before fat transfer to the face, and will be a required stage of your procedure.

The only instance when this is not the case is for those who have previously had liposuction or fat transfer procedures and who have stored their own fat stored from this previous procedure. In which case it is simply defrosted and injected without loss of potency.

Fat transfer is not a painful procedure. You will be under the influence of anaesthetic or fully sedated during the procedure and will not feel anything.

Afterwards you will be given paracetamol to manage any mild discomfort you may experience.

For patients worried about pain, it is always possible to have the procedure either fully sedated or under general anaesthetic.

After your surgery, you will be asked to come in for a post-operative appointment to come back and see our nursing staff at the Clinic between 1 and 2 weeks after your surgery. At this point your incision sites will be reviewed, and your preliminary healing will be assessed.

After 6 weeks your surgeon will personally review your progress – again at the Clinic - and make sure you are recovering as expected. In addition, they will remove any stitches and advise you on the need for further dressings.

Throughout the recovery period you will have full access to our 24/7 on call nursing service, and full access to the Clinic and our post-operative facilities.

Our aim is to make you feel as comfortable as possible during the entirety of your recovery period.

As your anaesthetic or sedation wear off you will wake up in our recovery facilities at the Clinic. You may feel a little drowsy but this often wears off within a few hours. After several hours in recovery, you will eat and hydrate. At that point, you will be allowed to leave the Clinic by our nursing staff.

It is common to feel a little pain and discomfort in the immediate aftermath of surgery. This will wear off in due course. Our 24/7 on call service is open to all patients for any question or query they may have at this time.

You will not be able to drive yourself home after the surgery. You should arrange for someone to pick you up and take you home. In addition, you will need to ask someone to stay with you for the first 24 hours after your procedure.

Fat transfer (fat grafting) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. It is often done under local anaesthesia and always as an outpatient.

Downtime is therefore minimal. Whilst there may be a little swelling and bruising, you should be back to your daily routine within a few days. We suggest a few days off work to allow for the swelling to settle. We suggest you avoid exercise for a couple of weeks.

One of the major benefits of fat transfer is that recovery is typically very swift and patients can be back at work and active very shortly after the procedure. Whilst the extent of such activity should be gradually phased in, you should be back at work within a week and exercising within two weeks.

We always advise that you return to low impact activities first like walking and cycling before you are able to reintroduce more strenuous activity such as lifting heavy weights and doing intense aerobic activities.

Final results are typically first seen a few weeks after your procedure, with ongoing improvements beyond this point likely as the healing process fully completes over the coming 3 to 6 months, and as your fat continues to re-distribute itself and settle.

Your surgeon will be able to give you specific guidance at your consultation.

Fat transfer to the facial areas is also a long-term solution which will last for many years as your consultant will discuss with you in your consultation.

Between 50–70% of the transferred fat is retained long term, and will last just like normal fat. It will even grow with weight gain. With time however, it will begin to wane alongside your other fat deposits. This should not happen before many years, however.
Some factors will impact the longevity of your results:

+ The skill of your surgeon - hоw thе fаt was harvested аnd purified, and hоw аnd whеrе it was іnjесtеd all impact longevity. The more skilled the surgeon and the better his/her understanding of the technique, the longer lasting the results
+ The technique employed - a process саllеd mісrоfаt grаftіng, although lаbоr іntеnѕіvе, is the bеѕt way tо еnѕurе thаt thе hіghеѕt percentage оf grаftеd fat wіll tаkе.
+ How well your body adapts to the transferred fat - thе іnjесtеd fаt must еѕtаblіѕh a nеw blооd ѕuррlу frоm уоur bоdу and receives thе nourishment іt nееdѕ for ѕurvіvаl. Whеn this hарреnѕ, rеѕultѕ can аnd оftеn are реrmаnеnt; hоwеvеr, thеrе mау bе a percentage оf fаt that does nоt tаkе, whісh іѕ whу tоuсhuр рrосеdurеѕ are ѕоmеtіmеѕ nесеѕѕаrу. Lifestyle factors such as smoking can impact this

Generally, fat survives best when put into areas with its own abundant blood supply. The face, which is so well vascularised, picks up a new supply quickly and the majority of the fat survives. Results are often at their best in the facial region, as a result

Yоu can expect the аrеаѕ to which thе fаt wаѕ transferred tо appear ѕоftеr аnd fullеr, gіvіng уоu a rеfrеѕhеd and rejuvenated арреаrаnсе. Yоu should also nоtісе аn improvement іn ѕkіn tеxturе.

Certain lifestyle factors can increase the risk of complications during and after your surgery. These include smoking, drinking alcohol, being overweight and taking drugs (for medical or recreational use.)

The most common impact of smoking before your surgery is that it increases your chances of developing an infection and inhibits your body's natural healing processes. We insist that all patients stop smoking and using nicotine products at least six weeks before surgery. Reducing alcohol intake is also strongly advised. This is particularly important for fat grafting surgery in which the fat's viability post-procedure is materially reduced in a smoker population.

Your doctor will discuss your current BMI and drug use at your consultation and advise you further on this.

Not only is the fat relatively easy to harvest via liposuction, but the transferred fat is biocompatible, non-allergenic, non-toxic and relatively easy to obtain in meaningful volumes.

More recently surgeons have used the therapeutic and rejuvenating benefits of fat grafting in the healing of wounds and scars, as well as fat's ability to repair damage to breast tissue following radiation treatment.

The rejuvenative effects are due to the high concentration of mesenchymal cells present in the fat tissue.

This natural 'autologous' resource is therefore readily accepted in the treatment area, is easily topped up and can provide additional rejuvenating benefits.

The benefit of fat transfer to the face over dermal fillers is that the results of the procedure are long lasting and permanent.

70% of the fat will 'take' in the face and continue to behave exactly like normal fat. This fat will be long lasting, add structure and, because of the included stem cells, improve skin and scar quality. It is also possible to inject higher volumes of fat into the face, given its natural ('autologous') properties.

By contrast, the results of dermal fillers tend to fade after 6 months of your treatment and there is only so much that can be injected at any one time.

Whilst there are always risk that present during surgical treatment, fat transfer procedures are generally a very common and safe group of procedure.

Please see our risks and complications section for more information about risks and side effects.

Your surgeon will be delighted to talk you through these comprehensively at your consultation.

The right time for a tummy tuck operation for those who have given birth is the end of the first year. At the end of this period, the patient can lose as much extra weight as she can and the degree of sagging and stretchmarks settle. Ideally, any weight-loss should reach completion before the tuck since they are performed to correct the end results of a weight loss program. Best results are achieved if the patient has reached their ideal weight.

There is no harm in getting pregnant one year after a tummy tuck surgery. If the person does not gain too much weight during pregnancy, the tummy will return to how it looked right after abdominoplasty.

During the tummy tuck operation, the abdomen is narrowed and an inner corset is built. Patients usually lose weight after the surgery, but in the case of weight gain, the abdomen area does not return to its shape before the operation in any way, but maintains its proportion.

Liposuction is surgery to remove unwanted pockets of fat from different areas of the body. The most common areas can include:

+ Arm Liposuction
+ Breast Liposuction
+ Calf Liposuction
+ Chin Liposuction
+ Facial Liposuction
+ Hip Liposuction
+ Knee Liposuction
+ Neck Liposuction
+ Stomach Liposuction

The most common areas of the body to be treated by liposuction are:

+ Arm Liposuction
+ Breast Liposuction
+ Calf Liposuction
+ Chin Liposuction
+ Facial Liposuction
+ Hip Liposuction
+ Knee Liposuction
+ Neck Liposuction
+ Stomach Liposuction

Everyone has a genetically predetermined distribution of body fat cells around their body. Whilst external factors such as diet and exercise can impact this, relative proportions do not change. Liposuction is a very versatile technique suitable to remove these stubborn areas of fat virtually anywhere on the body, and typically we can remove multiple areas in one single procedure.

Yes. For the right patient and with the correct planning, a tummy tuck and liposuction can be carried out simultaneously.

The belly-button is extracted from the skin without any change, so the shape stays the same. A replacement belly-button is made that will look the same as you had before. 

Abdominoplasty scars are inevitable given the scale and invasive nature of the procedure. As such, the key is to manage scarring by ensuring the abdominoplasty scar is well positioned and easily hidden behind the trouser line.

Abdominoplasty scars are equivalent to a caesarean scar (thin and white after the healing period) when executed properly by your surgeon.

After the abdominoplasty surgery, the patient comes to the hospital room dressed in a compression garment. We recommend this compression garment is used for three weeks. Light walks can commence immediately after surgery but it is wise to wait one and a half months before undertaking heavy exercise or returning to the gym or working out. You should refrain from lifting anything heavy for 4-6 weeks following the surgery as well.

Abdominoplasty recovery times depend on the type and technique of your procedure. A C – Section Tummy tuck recovery, for example, will vary with that of a full, mini or Brazilian equivalent.

In general, however, abdominoplasty recovery is swift and straightforward. You should expect to be off work for at least two weeks, with normal daily routine resumed after this period. You will need to wear a garment for 6 weeks, and avoid strenuous exercise for 8 weeks. Driving after abdominal surgery is not advised in the UK for three weeks after surgery.

Pain is moderate after surgery and will if necessary be controlled by simple over the counter painkillers. It may be advisable to arrange for a friend or relative to stay with you during the first day or two of your abdominoplasty recovery time at home.

There is no particular preparation for you to do other than what you would expect, that is washing generally and particularly the genitalia and tummy button.

Immediately before surgery, your surgeon will mark up the skin with you standing as you will be lying down to have the operation. He/she will mark the incisions and areas of liposuction. There will then be a photograph so that both you and the surgeon can refer back to check that you have achieved the expected improvement. We expect this to be an interesting and happy moment.

Tummy tucks are usually carried out under Total Intravenous Anaesthetic (TIVA) and therefore the procedure can be carried out as a day case. The operation usually takes about three hours, and when you wake up from your operation you may have a drip to give you fluid while you are not drinking. You might be given antibiotics to keep the wound clean. Also, you may have drainage tubes in your lower tummy to drain away any fluid or blood. These tubes will be taken out when the fluid or blood has stopped draining, usually before you go home. Drainage tubes are not required in a Brazilian Abdominoplasty. You are safe to go home the same day, but a responsible adult should stay with you for the first night to ensure you come to no harm as movement may be restricted. Your tummy will feel tight and a little sore. Simple painkillers should be enough to keep you comfortable.

Dressings - You will have some dressings on your tummy. You may need to wear a well-fitting support garment, usually for weeks after the operation. You will be asked to keep your knees and hips bent whenever possible to take the strain off your stitches.

Recovery - You will be out of bed on the same day as your surgery, and doing light activities after 10 days. You should be back to normal exercise in six weeks. If the abdominal muscles are repaired then severe exercise should be limited for three months. Whilst you are in hospital, you may be given blood thinning injections, and support stockings, to reduce the risk of a clot in the leg (DVT) or the lung (PE). Most patients take up to two weeks off work post operation, depending on their job. Your tummy will be sore and swollen for weeks to months after the operation. Do not lift heavy things for several weeks, and avoid sex for at least three weeks. With all activities, start gently. Do not drive until you feel safe and are comfortable wearing a seatbelt. Check your insurance documents if you are not sure.

Tummy tuck surgery costs start from £6,900.

The cost of a tummy tuck at the Cadogan Clinic includes all preoperative and post-operative assessment and care, as well as access to our 24/7 nursing on call service and bespoke scar management expertise.

How much a tummy tuck costs varies by procedure type and technique; combination tummy tuck surgery costs will be in excess of this quoted figure, with abdominoplasty prices typically correlated to the length of surgery involved.

You can view before and after tummy tuck images in our Before and After Tummy Tuck Gallery on this page.

At your consultation, your consultant will also share more extensive examples of abdominoplasty before and after results they have achieved.

It is very rare to be able to get your abdominoplasty on the NHS as it is considered a cosmetic surgery. It may occasionally be possible to get your abdominoplasty on the NHS if it is ascertained that the tummy tuck surgery is for health reasons, but this is very rare.

Gynaecomastia is swelling of the breast tissue in boys and men, caused by an imbalance of the hormones oestrogen and testosterone. Gynaecomastia can affect one or both breasts, sometimes unevenly.

Baby boys are often born with gynaecomastia, caused by high levels of their mother's circulating oestrogen, but it settles in weeks.

The next peak is in teenagers (1in 4) when it is tender and firm and very embarrassing. Fortunately, it usually settles within a couple of years. A minority come to surgery where the tissue is excised via a semi circular incision around the areola (the pink skin around the nipple)

In adult life, there are a variety of causes from medical conditions such as testicular disease and cirrhosis, various medications and street drugs. Bodybuilders taking anabolic steroids are at great risk of developing gynaecomastia.

Middle-aged men (1 in 3), as they put on weight, develop a soft fatty version. This can be of feminine proportions.

These fatty breasts respond well to liposuction. The breast disc below the nipple tends to contain a higher proportion of glandular tissue and may need to be directly excised.

Male Breast Reduction surgery is a surgical procedure designed to remove a surplus of fat deposits in the male breast region, and restore a proportionate contour and firmer, more masculine chest.

The choice of procedure depends on the exact condition but will primarily involve liposuction and tissue excision techniques.

The procedure is carried out as a day case procedure under General Anaesthesia, and takes between 1 - 2 hours.

There is typically bruising for up to 3 weeks with end results visible at about 3 months. Scars are usually insignificant and managed by our Scar Management programme.

You may be suitable for a Male Breast Reduction if you have:

+ Excess fat deposits in your chest
+ Excess glandular breast tissue in your chest
+ Asymmetrical chest
+ 'Puffy' nipple
+ Disproportionate chest size relative to rest of figure

The primary symptom of gynaecomastia is simply enlargement of the male breasts. Gynaecomastia is the enlargement of glandular tissue rather than fatty tissue.

It is typically symmetrical in location with regard to the nipple, however, the enlargement may be greater on one side even if both sides are involved.

Tenderness and sensitivity may be present, although there is typically no severe pain. The areola may have a rubbery or firm feel.

One of our highly trained, elite plastic surgeons will perform your Male Breast Reduction.

All our Male Breast Reduction surgeons are liposuction specialists have been hand picked by Mr Bryan Mayou, our founder, and the pioneer of liposuction in the UK.

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Will I require a single surgery or multiple surgeries?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of Male Breast Reductionprocedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

No special preparation is required although it is generally advisable to do the following before any surgery

+ Stop smoking. Smoking decreases blood flow in the skin and can slow the healing process. If you smoke, your doctor will recommend that you stop smoking before surgery and during recovery.
+ Avoid certain medications and blood thinners. You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase bleeding.
+ Arrange for help during recovery. Make plans for someone to drive you home after you leave the hospital and stay with you for at least the first night of your recovery at home.

Male Breast Reduction surgery should take between one and two hours.

You should start to see results in the days following surgery. These will fully start to appear from around the six week mark and improvements will be ongoing for the first 12 or so months.

Your results will be long lasting so long as you maintain your body weight following surgery.

Recurrence can happen, but occurs only when a hormonal imbalance persists beyond surgery. The recurrence levels are also typically materially less than the pre-surgery levels.

Your results will be long lasting so long as you maintain your body weight following surgery.

Recurrence can happen, but occurs only when a hormonal imbalance persists beyond surgery. The recurrence levels are also typically materially less than the pre-surgery levels.

 

You will not feel any pain during the procedure as you will be under the influence of anaesthetic.

Immediately following surgery, you may experience discomfort but any pain should be tolerable. Your surgeon can provide painkillers for this and the majority of patients no longer need them a few days after breast surgery.

Male Breast Reduction surgery is straightforward, safe surgery although you should be aware of all the risks and complications before going ahead with surgery. Your surgeon at your will go through these at length and in full at your consultation, but the main risks include

+ Scars - It is perfectly possible for the expert surgeon to hide his scars. There should be no liposuction scars acting as a giveaway on the front of the chest and even when in the Webster's operation it is necessary to carry out a direct excision of tissue. This scar is well disguised around the edge of the areolar. There should be no scars on the chest itself. Some patients make poor scars and Cadogan post-operative scar treatment is important.
+ Bleeding – bleeding is a risk of a peri-areolar subcutaneous mastectomy (Webster's operation) but is reduced by including liposuction with the procedure. Occasionally patients will bleed postoperatively and will require an early return to the operating theatre. Your surgeon will discuss any medicines which increase your risk of bleeding and it is important to control high blood pressure
+ Recurrence – any hormone imbalance may persist following surgery, so that any remaining breast tissue can also increase in size. The problem would never be as great if a reduction had not been done, but some recurrence is possible.
+ Swelling, bruising and pain - The bruising after liposuction of the breasts is often greater than in other areas and will persist for longer. Patience is necessary.
+Seroma – This is a problem only associated with Ultrasound (Vaser) Liposuction, which we avoid.
+ Increased and reduced sensation after surgery – most patients will get some alteration in the sensation of their breasts, most commonly numbness around the nipple, but in most cases this is temporary.
+ Asymmetry – it is sometimes easier to remove tissue from one breast more than the other, in which case there may be some asymmetry, when all has settled down. Lumpiness of the breast is with irregularity of removal of tissue is a complication of surgical excision (Webster's or other subcutaneous mastectomy) or Vaser liposuction. This is common when there is an inexperienced surgeon, but minor degrees can occur with a good technique.
+ Unsatisfactory results – Sometimes patients are not satisfied with the result of their gynaecomastia because there expectations and requirements are not in line with technical possibilities. It is important to have a careful discussion with your surgeon to avoid disappointment.

Recovery time for this procedure will depend on the individual patient but is fairly minimal.

We usually advise that you take around a week off work following surgery as there will be bruising and swelling which may take a few days to subside. We also recommend you do not resume strenuous exercise for 4 weeks.

You will feel a little bruised and stiff for a few days but there is no restriction on movement. Any dressings can be removed in a couple of days or when they come loose, and stitches removed in a week. In the weeks after surgery, smoother skin will emerge on the chest and scars will start to heal.

Our expertise in scarring techniques along with our highly-experienced surgeons ensure a great result.

Yоu may соntіnuе tо experience ѕоmе mіld, реrіоdіс dіѕсоmfоrt and ѕwеllіng durіng your recovery, but ѕuсh fееlіngѕ аrе nоrmаl. Effective pain relief can be provided by your aftercare team should you required it. Sеvеrе pain, bleeding or swelling should bе reported tо your surgeon.

You will receive more detailed advice from your surgeon ahead of surgery

You should expect minimal gynaecomastia surgery scars after male chest reduction surgery.

This is because male chest reduction surgery requires a very small incision that results in a very small gynaecomastia surgery scar. You should expect the gynaecomastia surgery scar to be red and slightly raised in the weeks and months after your procedure, before fading completely.

Skilled surgeons are also able to minimize gynaecomastia surgery scars and place them expertly in locations where they are not visible to the eye. Gynaecomastia surgery scar visibility can be further reduced by proper aftercare management and by regular moisturisation and massage techniques, all of which our dedicated team will advise our patients in the days following your procedure.

Please review our Scar Management programme here for an idea of the options available to you at Cadogan Clinic.

Surgery is undoubtedly the most effective treatment but does need to be done by an experienced surgeon. We have in the past seen very poor results.

There will be some who wish to avoid surgery at all costs and they might consider the following.

Exercise and diet

+ The first place to start by changing your exercise and diet. It's completely free and might help reverse the body's metabolism. Since gynaecomastia is a least partially due to the build up of fatty tissue in the breast area, it only makes sense that you would want to minimize the amount of fat in your diet
+ When the body is unable to convert fat into energy, it must store it. That leads to fatty deposits and more fatty tissue. Thus, you may want to start thinking about methods to scale back your daily caloric intake or, at the very least, changing what and even how you eat on a daily basis.
+ Remember however you are only reducing the fatty element and not the more important glandular tissue
+  In terms of exercise, there are several ways to target the chest area that can help to tighten up the muscle in the area. As the muscle mass becomes more defined, it helps to reduce some of the "flabby" look of the chest area.
+ This extra muscle does accentuate the breasts by pushing them outwards. This is a problem for weightlifters even if they are not taking anabolic steroids.

Medications

+ If you suspect that your gynaecomastia is due to medical reasons rather than a hormonal imbalance, you can ask your doctor to experiment with different medications. Some men, for example, have experimented with getting testosterone replacement.
+ Other popular medications to try include anti-oestrogens, Danazol, Tamoxifen and Clomiphene.
+ These are all prescription medications and are not approved by the FDA.

Herbal creams

+ We do not know of any reputable studies to show that topical herbal creams help with this condition
+ There are several herbal creams on the market such as Gynexin

Fat transfer at the Cadogan Clinic is a very common and safe procedure and helps to improve a patients’ self-esteem hugely.  The results we can achieve are always natural and provide patients with a greater peace of mind as we are augmenting their bodies or restoring volume to their faces with their own tissue, however to do this a certain level of fat is required and your specialised surgeon will be able to assess this during your initial consultation and examination.  The treatment length can increase as the complexity of the procedure changes, for example, fat harvested from one area of the body and deposited into the area around the mouth may take approximately one and a half hours whereas fat extracted from multiple areas of the body to re-augment the breasts or the buttocks could take up to around three hours.

Downtime is very minimal, and most patients are able to return to their normal activities immediately after their treatment.

It's common to see a temporary plumping effect right away, and additional volume around the injection site may linger for several days before fading.

You'll also probably experience some swelling and bruising in the same area. You should be able to cover any bruising with makeup.

Skin needling is effective in treating age concerns such as lines, wrinkles and pigmentation, scars stretch marks and pitted acne scarring, and improving skin texture and tone. This treatment is not suitable for those who are pregnant or lactating, those with skin concerns such as Rosacea, Psoriasis or Eczema or those who have recently had facial fillers. Your experienced aesthetic practitioner will assess your suitability for this treatment at your initial consultation.

Micro-needling treats many different skin concerns in an effective way by targeting areas to tighten and smooth the skin. It improves general skin texture including wrinkles, fine lines, acne and surgical scars, stretch marks and enlarged pores.

Microneedling boost product absorption by 3000% during the initial hour following your treatment. This is why we pair micro-needling treatments with product boosters such as anti-ageing serums, retinol or hyaluronic acid. The thin microneedles are used to gently penetrate the skin and create micro-injuries that trigger the synthesis of new collagen which combined with a booster give the best results.

Mild redness can occur for the first day or so. Avoid sunlight for the first 24 hours and apply a sunscreen of at least 30 SPF daily to protect the newly treated skin form sun exposure. For the first day after your treatment you will ideally not wash your face, as there are product boosters applied and you want to allow maximum absorption. Avoid working out or anything that causes excessive sweating for the next 48 hours, as well as hot showers and massages.

Whether you’re an older patient who’s looking to treat wrinkles, or a younger patient wanting to treat acne scars, you can expect a general improvement of skin quality and appearance with collagen increased by up to 1000%.

We normally recommend between 3-6 sessions, within 4-6 weeks of each other. This depends on what your skin concerns are, as each patient is different. When you come in for your consultation, we will be able to recommend a treatment plan for your personal goals.

A DermaPen is an electric device that looks very similar to a pen and holds several disposable microneedles at the end. The depth is controlled by millimetre precision to target specific areas of the body.

When the device is used, we are purposely causing physical trauma to the skin. Because of this trauma, you can expect redness, slight swelling and heat to the area. This is a normal reaction to be expected and will subside in 24-48 hours.

It is not a treatment which can be done during a lunch break, as the skin will look inflamed and sensitised for several hours after the treatment. You may use mineral make up only if you wish to use make up on the face for the 24-48 hours following your treatment, as this will not congest the skin and will be absorbed into the body as natural minerals do.

It is usually advised to have a micro-needling treatment at the end of a working day or on a day off from work or events that are in the days following.

Immediately after your treatment you can expect to feel heat and swelling in the area. Whilst downtime varies with each individual, depending on the aggressiveness of treatment and personal (temporary) skin response to treatment (skin inflammation and redness) this is a normal reaction to be expected.

In the days following you may get some dryness or flaking of the skin. This is a normal reaction as the micro-needling process will have boosted your cellular turnover and thus pushing away older dead skin cells.

You will see visible results for skin rejuvenation at between 6-8 weeks after your procedure and the results continue to improve over time. Your skin naturally heals itself every 45 days so with micro-needling stimulation changes will be fast. At Cadogan Clinic we recommend a course of DermaPen sessions for optimum results though improvement is noticeable after just one treatment.

This treatment at Cadogan Clinic is very safe and effective. Any side effects experienced with the DermaPen usually subside within 24-48 hours and may include erythema, stinging, itching, skin tightness. It is minimally invasive with minimal downtime and requires only simple aftercare.

Micro-needling can be safely performed on all skin colours and types and there is no risk hyperpigmentation as the melanocytes and epidermis stay intact during skin needling.

You may experience minor discomfort during the skin needling treatment but a numbing cream can be applied beforehand to reduce this. Depending on the aggressiveness of treatment, you may experience pin-point bleeding during the treatment but not ongoing. You may find temporary redness of the skin for a couple of hours or a day depending on the treatment type.

DermaPen stamps over your skin creating tiny punctures in the skin, the majority of which are simply pushing open the pores. The body sees this as damage to the skin which then stimulates collagen and elastin production and initiates the healing process, therefore tricking the body into repairing scars, stretch marks and wrinkles.

DermaPen is a skin micro-needling treatment with minimum downtime which promotes scarless healing and natural collagen production in the skin to improve the appearance of scars, acne scarring, stretch marks, wrinkles, pigmentation and rejuvenate the skin.

Obstetricians are clever at creating high-quality Caesarian Section scars, but cannot avoid all potential problems. They try to place the scar transversely low on the abdominal wall below the bikini line.

However, the low scar through pubic hair is also wherein a small proportion of patients risk keloid scars. We now have a genetic test to assess this risk before surgery and can treat the scar itself with Cadogan Scar Management.

The bigger problem is swelling above the scar which bulges through tight clothing. The cause is tethering of the healing scar to deeper structures as it heals and is difficult for the Obstetrician to avoid. It is a problem for even the skinniest patient but becomes more significant for plumper patients. We can surgically revise these scars very effectively at the Cadogan Clinic removing the bulge (Cadogan Caesarian Section scar revision), either under local or general anaesthesia as a day case.

Patients with stretched loose skin and more subcutaneous fat will often benefit from a mini-abdominoplasty, which includes the removal of surplus skin and liposuction of the lower abdominal wall.

Patients, who have Caesarian sections performed in a hurry, often undergo the  Classical Caesarian Section with a vertical midline abdominal scar. The scar is not only difficult to hide but also of lesser quality. Cadogan Scar management becomes a more likely option.

Patients who have multiple caesarian sections sometimes end up with multiple scars. We can revise these to replace them with a single good quality scar.

The operation is carried out as a Day case, usually with you asleep, although the occasional patient might prefer local anaesthesia. We use TIVA at the Cadogan Clinic, which is safe and reliable.

Before surgery, the surgeon will mark up the skin with you awake and take standard photographs for the records.

Liposuction alone may be adequate, but if there is floppy skin, it will need be reduced. The markings will determine the amount to be removed and the position of the final scar. This may stretch from the back of the elbow to the armpit. Simply reducing skin in the armpit is rarely adequate. Any surplus fat around the front of the arm or adjacent back or shoulder will be removed by liposuction.

Most of the stitches are likely to be dissolving, but some in the armpit will need to be removed at 10 to 14 days after surgery. Surgeons have their preferences.

 

 

Not all bad scars require a surgical scar revision. At the Cadogan Clinic, we have an array of non-surgical treatments designed to improve scar quality.

Young scars, still red and often itchy, respond well to silicone applied as gel twice a day or as a sheet applied over the scar. The next level of treatment is Icon laser sessions usually repeated at 2-week intervals. Really active scars growing and sore may be treated by very careful injection of steroids at 6-week intervals and finally, Radiotherapy is the most serious treatment.

All these treatments are not painful apart from the injection of steroids, which can be done under local or even General Anaesthesia.

Older established scars, even when tethered to deeper tissue are improved by the transfer of stem cells, simply as fat aspirated from elsewhere in the body or with as a special Cadogan concentrated solution of stem cells extracted from your fat.

Surgical scar revisions become necessary, where the scar is so bad that an improved scar is not adequate and it is better to just take it out and start again. Often this will extend to modifying distorted adjacent soft tissues. Is this painful? Not, of course, once local anaesthesia is given either as new powerful cream or injection. Bigger procedures will require a general anaesthetic in the form of TIVA (Total IntraVenous Anaesthesia) as a day case.

An arm lift is a surgical procedure designed to reduce the size of the arm and eliminate fat deposits in the arm, as well as remove a surplus of loose arm skin.

The choice of procedure depends on the exact condition (excess fat deposits, excess loose skin or both) but will involve either liposuction, skin excision or both.

The procedure is carried out as a day case procedure usually under General Anaesthesia, and takes between 1 – 2 hours.

There is typically bruising for up to 3 weeks after which you can happily wear short sleeves, and an end results at about 3 months. Scars are insignificant and managed by our Scar Management programme.

You may be suitable for an arm lift if you have:

+ Excess fat deposits in your upper arms
+ Loose sagging skin in/around your upper arms
+ Inelastic, lax arm skin
+ 'Bingo wings'
+ Unshapely, untoned arm contours
+ Disproportionate arms relative to rest of figure

An arm lift focusses on the upper arm area, but adjacent areas of fat deposits and excess skin can also be treated at the same time

These include:

+ the shoulder
+ armpit
+ back
+ breast
+ forearms
+ back of the elbow

One of our highly trained, elite plastic surgeons will perform your arm lift.

All our liposuction specialists have been hand picked by Mr Bryan Mayou, our founder, and the pioneer of liposuction in the UK.

There are three techniques which are used, with technique relating to the size and scale of the operation at hand. Where possible more minimal techniques are preferred, as this reduces the length of surgery, the amount of scarring, and the amount of downtime and extent of recovery

+ Mini brachioplasty (minimal incision) - your surgeon will make a single incision in the shape of a crescent under the armpit. This may be extended in a 'T-Line' into the arm. This technique is most suitable for people with minimal excess skin and fat in the upper region of the arm, and will result in less scarring than a standard brachioplasty. Your surgeon will hide the scar within the armpit

+ Standard brachioplasty (inner arm incision)- this technique involves making two separate incisions: one from the armpit to just above the elbow, between the biceps and triceps, and another on the back of the arm from the armpit to just above the elbow along the tricep region. It is most suitable for those with a moderate amount of excess skin and fat. Your surgeon will remove the excess skin and fat, then tighten and reshape the underlying tissues. The scar is well hidden when the arms are held at the side, and this technique is thought to achieve a more comprehensive result than the mini-brachioplasty

+ Extended Brachioplasty – the incision for an extensive brachioplasty runs from the elbow, through the armpit, and into the side of the chest. After your surgeon makes the incision, they will remove excess skin and fat, then tighten the underlying tissues. They will either remove the excess fat directly, or use liposuction to remove it. As this technique results in maximal scarring that extends to the side of the chest, surgeons do not often use it.

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Will I require a single surgery or multiple surgeries?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of arm lift procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

No special preparation is required although it is generally advisable to do the following before any surgery

+ Stop smoking. Smoking decreases blood flow in the skin and can slow the healing process. If you smoke, your doctor will recommend that you stop smoking before surgery and during recovery.
+ Avoid certain medications. You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase bleeding.
+ Arrange for help during recovery. Make plans for someone to drive you home after you leave the hospital and stay with you for at least the first night of your recovery at home.

Arm Lift surgery should take between one and two hours.

You should start to see results in the days following surgery. These will fully start to appear from around the six week mark and improvements will be ongoing for the first 12 or so months.

Your results will be long lasting and permanent so long as you maintain your body weight following surgery.

The ageing process will however continue from your new post procedure point, and skin laxity will gradually increase over time. The ageing process will start from a far better point however, so it should be many years before this becomes noticeable again.

You will not feel any pain during arm reduction surgery as you will be under the influence of anaesthetic.

Immediately following arm reduction surgery, you may experience discomfort but any pain should be tolerable.

Your surgeon can provide painkillers for this and the majority of patients will no longer need them a few days after arm reduction surgery.

Arm reduction surgery is straightforward, safe surgery although you should be aware of all the risks and complications before going ahead with arm reduction surgery.

Some are listed above in the body of this web page, but your surgeon at your will go through these at length and in full at your arm reduction consultation

Downtime is fairly minimal following an arm lift and you should be back at work within a week or two, and resuming normal exercise in 4 – 6 weeks.

If you have undergone Liposuction, you will feel a little bruised and stiff for a few days but there is no restriction on movement. Any dressings can be removed in a couple of days or when they come loose, and stitches removed in a week.

If you have undergone skin excision you will have some dissolving sutures and probably some permanent sutures to be removed in 7 to 14 days. Dressings vary, but any bulky ones can come off in a couple of days. You should exercise to maintain full movement of the shoulder and arms, but this need not be violent to stress the sutures.

Yоu may соntіnuе tо experience ѕоmе mіld, реrіоdіс dіѕсоmfоrt and ѕwеllіng durіng thіѕ tіmе, but ѕuсh fееlіngѕ аrе nоrmаl. Sеvеrе pain, bleeding or swelling should bе reported tо your surgeon.

You will receive more detailed advice from your surgeon ahead of surgery

A brachioplasty, or arm lift, is sometimes referred to as arm reduction surgery as this procedure involves reduction in the size and volume of the upper arm following liposuction and the excision of excess skin.

Of all the terms for a brachioplasty, arm reduction surgery captures the sculpting and volume reducing essence of the operation best, and hence its use.

A Thigh Lift is a surgical procedure designed to remove a surplus of loose leg skin and eliminate fat deposits in the thigh region, and restore a proportionate contour and firmer thigh.

The choice of procedure depends on the exact condition (excess loose skin or excess skin and excess fat deposits) but will involve skin excision, or a combination of skin excision and liposuction.

The procedure is carried out as a day case procedure under General Anaesthesia, and takes 2 hours.

There is typically bruising for up to 3 weeks with end results at about 3 months. Scars are insignificant and managed by our Scar Management programme.

You may be suitable for a Thigh Lift if you have:

+ Loose sagging skin in/around your upper legs
+ Inelastic, lax thigh skin
+ Excess fat deposits in your thighs
+ Unshapely, untoned leg contours
+ Disproportionate thighs relative to rest of figure

One of our highly trained, elite plastic surgeons will perform your Thigh Lift.

All our thigh lift and liposuction specialists have been hand picked by Mr Bryan Mayou, our founder, and the pioneer of liposuction in the UK.

Your consultation is designed to be perfect opportunity to ask all the pressing questions that you have to your consultant, ahead of making a decision on surgery. It is vital that you are fully informed before making your final decision, and the consultation is therefore a key part of the education and decision making process.

Some good examples of questions to ask, include:

+ Am I a good candidate for this procedure?
+ Do you think my goals are realistic given my existing anatomy?
+ Will I require a single surgery or multiple surgeries?
+ Can I see some before & after pictures of Thigh Lift procedures you have done previously?
+ How long will my recovery take?
+ Is it true that Cadogan offers 24/7 on call nursing service?
+ What can I expect in terms of bruising, swelling and scarring?
+ What are my options if I am unhappy with my results?

No special preparation is required although it is generally advisable to do the following before any surgery

+ Stop smoking. Smoking decreases blood flow in the skin and can slow the healing process. If you smoke, your doctor will recommend that you stop smoking before surgery and during recovery.
+ Avoid certain medications. You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase bleeding.
+ Arrange for help during recovery. Make plans for someone to drive you home after you leave the hospital and stay with you for at least the first night of your recovery at home.

Thigh Lift surgery should take two hours.

You should start to see results in the days following surgery. These will fully start to appear from around the six week mark and improvements will be ongoing for the first 12 or so months.

Your results will be long lasting and permanent so long as you maintain your body weight following surgery.

The ageing process will however continue from your new post procedure point, and skin laxity will gradually increase over time. The ageing process will start from a far better point however, so it should be many years before this becomes noticeable again.

You will not feel any pain during the procedure as you will be under the influence of anaesethetic.

Immediately following surgery, you may experience discomfort but any pain should be tolerable. Your surgeon can provide painkillers for this and the majority of patients no longer need them a few days after thigh surgery.

Thigh Lift surgery is straightforward, safe surgery although you should be aware of all the risks and complications before going ahead with surgery. Some are listed on this page, but your surgeon at your will go through these at length and in full at your consultation

Recovery time for this procedure will depend on the individual patient but is fairly minimal.

We usually advise that you take around two weeks off work following surgery as there will be bruising and swelling which may take around 10 days to subside. We also recommend you do not resume exercise for 4 – 6 weeks.

In the following few weeks, as you heal, smoother skin on the thigh and scars will start to heal.

Our expertise in scarring techniques along with our highly-experienced surgeons ensure a great result, and whilst a thigh lift surgery is not an especially painful procedure, you may experience discomfort due to the tight sensation of the skin. Effective pain relief can be provided by your aftercare team should you required it.

If you have undergone Liposuction, you will feel a little bruised and stiff for a few days but there is no restriction on movement. Any dressings can be removed in a couple of days or when they come loose, and stitches removed in a week.

Yоu may соntіnuе tо experience ѕоmе mіld, реrіоdіс dіѕсоmfоrt and ѕwеllіng durіng thіѕ tіmе, but ѕuсh fееlіngѕ аrе nоrmаl. Sеvеrе pain, bleeding or swelling should bе reported tо your surgeon.

You will receive more detailed advice from your surgeon ahead of surgery

Aside from liposuction, it's also possible to combine a thigh lift surgery with a buttock lift or even a knee lift. On the front of the knee, there are generally two bulges, just below the kneecap on the front on either side on which the fat can be removed if that is something you're concerned about for your over-all look. Thigh lift surgery is performed as a day case, meaning you will be able to return home after the surgery. You can expect to have reasonable mobility back after a few days, and a return to your full daily activities after 6-8 weeks.

You can view thigh lift before and after images when you come in to meet with your surgeon.

At your consultation, your consultant will share examples with you of thigh lift before and after results they have personally achieved with patients in the past.

Your chin implant procedure will be delivered by one of our handpicked team of elite plastic surgeons here at the Cadogan Clinic.
We only work with the very best practitioners, and you can be sure you are being seen by a specialists with a track record of excellence in this procedure

All the standard recommendations regarding preparation for surgery are recommended for this procedure. This includes:

+ Stop smoking. Smoking decreases blood flow in the skin and can slow the healing process. If you smoke, your doctor will recommend that you stop smoking before surgery and during recovery.
+ Avoid certain medications. You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase bleeding.
+ Arrange for help during recovery. Make plans for someone to drive you home after you leave the hospital and stay with you for at least the first night of your recovery at home.

Your surgery should take no longer than one hour, and take place under general anaesthetic

You should start to see your results as soon as the compression garment is removed and the swelling has subsided after a week or so.

Full results will not be visible for 6 weeks.

Your results will be permanent.

Your appearance will continue to change however as you age over the years, with the tissues around the chin likely to be impacted by the ageing of the overlying skin and gravity.

This is a procedure associated with very little discomfort during recovery. You will feel nothing during surgery due to your general anaesthetic

Chin augmentation surgery using implants is considered safe surgery, and is generally associated with very few complications. The basic technique is an old one, and in one manifestation or another has been around for over 50 years.

Revision surgeries often relate to local infections or aesthetic re-contouring. Chin implants can be removed very easily, if required.

Downtime is fairly minimal given the fairly straightforward surgery involved. You should expect a little discomfort for several days following surgery, and swelling and bruising for up to a week.

You should expect to wear a compression bandage for at least 24 hours, and maybe for as long as a week after surgery.
Food should be limited to liquids or very soft food for a week, to ensure you avoid excessively chewing.

By this point you should be back to your daily routine. Strenuous exercise is not recommended for 4 – 6 weeks.

A facial support garment will be fitted following surgery in order to minimise swelling and reduce movement post operatively. This can be worn for anywhere between 24 hours and 1 week (day and night).

Your surgeon will advise you ahead of surgery.

Your surgeon will give you specific advice on how to wash and bathe after the surgery.

You can expect to shower and wash your hair 48 hours after your chin enhancement procedure, taking care of the treatment area.

Yes. The tissues of the face are interlinked, so chin augmentation surgery is commonly performed alongside other facial surgery to improve the structure or appearance of the facial region.

The best results are often achieved when one or more complementary procedures are performed at once.

These commonly include:

+ Blepharoplasty
+ Browlift
+ Facelift
+ Fat Transfer to Face 
+ Otoplasty
+ Rhinoplasty
+ Liposuction 

Most commonly chin augmentation is combined with Rhinoplasty surgery, as both surgeries aim to improve the profile of the face. A skin tightening procedure such as a facelift can often bring out the very best results for the profile, so are also commonly combined.

Additional volume can be added with fat transfer to the face or later, non surgically, with dermal fillers.

You can view chin implant before and after images in our Chin Implant Before and After Gallery on this page.

At your consultation, your consultant will also share more extensive examples of chin implant before and after results they have achieved.

We feel strongly that you can best understand what might be possible for you and your chin anatomy by reviewing the results of previous chin implant surgery.

The skin and soft tissues of the face descend with age. It is, however, delayed where it is fixed to the deeper tissues around the eyes, ear, nose and mouth, giving the familiar droopiness and folds. Descent of the eyebrows has a further consequence in that skin builds up below the eye itself. The eyelids develop loose skin on their own, but in addition, they become bunched up by the lower brow.

Anyone with the following characteristics is suitable for a brow lift:

+ Sagging brow
+ Drooping eye brows
+ Loose elastic skin in the brow, eye and forehead area
+ Fine brow lines and forehead wrinkles
+ Asymmetrical brow region

Typically patients who are most suitable for a surgical brow lift are between the ages of 40 and 60 years old, and with good skin elasticity. Non surgical alternatives may be more suitable for those in younger age brackets.

Whether your treatment is surgical or non surgical, you will be treated by a specialist aesthetic plastic or oculoplastic surgeon.

No special preparation is required although it is generally advisable to do the following before any surgery

+ Stop smoking. Smoking decreases blood flow in the skin and can slow the healing process. If you smoke, your doctor will recommend that you stop smoking before surgery and during recovery.
+ Avoid certain medications. You'll likely need to avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements, which can increase bleeding.
+ Arrange for help during recovery. Make plans for someone to drive you home after you leave the hospital and stay with you for at least the first night of your recovery at home.

This will depend on what treatment you opt for. Surgery provides a long lasting result which will only reverse with the ongoing action of ageing.

Injectables are a temporary solution, and are not permanent.

Enerjet delivers long lasting, albeit non-permanent results.

For non surgical Brow Lift treatments you will be able to immediately resume your daily activities with no downtime.

For surgical Brow Lift treatments you will need to spend several days recovering at home, and up to two weeks off work. We recommend you do not take strenuous exercise for 4 -6 weeks, with results first fully observable from this point forward.

Risks are rare but as with any surgery there are some possible complications:

+ Scarring
+ Changes in skin sensation - temporary or permanent numbness on the forehead or top of the scal.
+ Asymmetry in the position of the brows
+ Hair problems – an elevated hairline or hair loss at the incision site

Like any other type of major surgery, a brow lift also poses risk of bleeding, infection and an adverse reaction to anaesthesia.

During your consultation, your surgeon will advise you to stop smoking, aspirin or other medication prior to surgery as this can slow down the healing process. He or she will discuss with you when it is suitable to resume these.

Following your surgery you may experience some mild discomfort and swelling but this will usually disappear completely one or two weeks. Many of our patients go back to work after one week but your surgeon will advise you to refrain from exercise, driving and sexual intercourse until full healing has taken place.

Most of our patients opt to undergo this procedure under general anaesthetic so you will feel no pain. After your surgery, any pain or discomfort you may experience will be controlled with medication provided by your doctor and this will usually subside within a few days.

Prices begin at £6000 depending on your initial consultation with your expert cosmetic gynaecological surgeon.

Generally, there will be swelling and soreness after surgery which should subside in a week or two. After a couple of days you should be able to walk around comfortably. The final result may be a couple of months following surgery, but you are usually able to resume sexual activity and exercise within 4-6 weeks.

Any risks are the same as with any other surgical procedure that involves a general anaesthetic if this is what you choose to have. Apart from possible bleeding and infection which is not common, there are no specific risks to be concerned about but your surgeon will explain this procedure to you in detail at your consultation.

Following your perineum and pelvic floor surgery there will be an improvement to the way this area looks, feels and functions allowing you to feel that things are “back to normal” shortly afterwards, give you back your confidence and rebuild your sex life.

Perineum and Pelvic Floor Repair is a cosmetic surgery treatment to restore both the cosmetic appearance of the perineum as well as the muscle tone deep in the pelvic floor and vaginal muscles which may have been damaged during childbirths.

Fat transfer to breast, also known as fat grafting or fat injections to breast, is an advanced surgical treatment that involves harvesting and filtering unwanted fat cells through liposuction techniques. It is a safe and minimally invasive procedure that is commonly used to reshape breasts.

Fat transfer to the breast occurs in two consecutive procedures. In the first procedure, fat issue is harvested using a small syringe from other areas of the body, such as the thighs, stomach, or buttocks, through liposuction. In the second procedure, the extracted fat tissue is refined into pure fat and injected into the breasts to increase the patient’s natural contours and enhance their size and shape. In order to ensure the survival of the tissue, fat injections to the breast are executed in small rather than large quantities. 

The fat transfer to breast procedure is longer than the procedure for inserting implants, and can take around three hours. This is because the fat harvesting and grafting procedure is a meticulous process, and the fat injections to the breast are done carefully to ensure a natural appearance.

Fat injections to the breast are done through multiple 2 to 3mm incisions, leaving very small scars that are nearly invisible. Depending on the patient and surgeons’ preferences and suitability, it is usually performed under local or general anaesthesia. It takes around one week for the pain to subside. Within one month after the procedure, the patient will have recovered fully and back to their normal routine.

Natural Breast Augmentation is recommended for those who want a more natural-looking breast augmentation. Suitable patients will have enough fat from other parts of the body to transfer and, are not considering having children within the next year and do not require a breast uplift also. For those who want a more significant increase in their bust size, we recommend surgical breast augmentation with implants.

Natural breast augmentation is the perfect solution if you are looking to refine your shape rather than significantly alter it. This procedure will give you fuller and more shapely breasts. It is useful for young breasts, but currently extremely useful for refining the result of all types of breast reconstructive surgery. The prominent top and inner edges of a breast implant can be disguised. The empty upper pole of an older breast after childbirth can be plumped out.

For those who want a more significant increase in their bust size, we usually recommend surgical breast augmentation with implants. However, not everyone wants foreign material inserted into the body and natural breast augmentation using your own fat is attractive. The main point to consider is that the enlargement will be limited. Do not expect to be more than a cup size bigger.

A second operation will produce the same improvement. This, of course, depends on you having enough fat available. Many patients asking for breast enlargement naturally have a slim, athletic figure and have very little fat to spare. Your suitability for this procedure will be assessed during your initial consultation and examination.

It is important to be open and honest with your consultant so you can move forward with a procedure that can achieve the results you are looking for. Natural breast augmentation is a perfect solution for many patients, but be aware that there are limitations to the results of a fat transfer procedure that surgical implant augmentation does not have. You should not, for instance, be wanting to breastfeed within the next year

For some people, natural breast augmentation via fat transfer has some added benefits to it. Your breasts are being augmented with fat cells taken from another part of your body by liposuction, so you are really having two procedures. The liposuction will slim and define the part of your body you are taking the excess fat from.

The final result of your fat transfer to breast procedure will depend on your current breast size and the amount of fat that can be extracted to be re-distributed. You may need several sessions to achieve the full look. The best way to find out exactly what you should have for your specific case is to book a consultation with one of our experienced surgeons at the Cadogan Clinic.

Yes, it does.

We use fat in three ways to enhance the breast at the Cadogan Clinic:

+ To improve the shape after breast augmentation to disguise visible edges. These can become visible in slim people across the top of the breast and in the cleavage.
+ To improve the shape after breast reconstruction or a mastectomy
+ To increase volume as a natural alternative to implants. It works well for small increases. Larger ones will require multiple procedures to build up the volume. Older people after pregnancy often develop empty breasts with stretched skin and loss of volume. Fat grafted into the upper part of the breast will give back that pertness of youth.

Whilst it is true that the degree of success of the procedure can vary from case to case (depending on the suitability of the candidate and the quality of the donor site), excellent results are typically achieved.

This procedure is also a safer way to enhance the breast than implants since no artificial, foreign substances are used; it is completely natural. Also, by inserting one’s own body cells, the likelihood of allergic reactions or other negative body responses is much lower than with implants.

Finally, it is also a great long-term solution to get rid of fat in stubborn areas and enhance the breasts in one operation.

You will see immediate results. The swelling associated with healing and the injection of local anaesthetic settles in a couple of weeks. There is also some loss of the graft itself. At the end of the day, 50-70% of the added volume remains. The appearance and feel of the breasts will continue to improve over the next few months. By 3-6 months the change is as permanent as normal breast tissue and we can look at photographs to make a final assessment.

At this point, one might want to consider if this is the result desired, or whether a further grafting session is indicated. The transferred fat is alive and behaves just like the normal breast fat. Most breast changes occur with pregnancies and rather less with age and weight. This is also the case with grafted fat. There are people who will want extra grafting to replace this further loss. It would also be perfectly safe to carry out breast lift surgery(mastopexy).

After fat transfer to your breasts, you will notice results immediately - more evidently within the first few weeks after your treatment when any swelling and bruising have subsided. The results will continue to improve over the next few months’ as your fat re-distributes itself and settles.  

The immediate concern is to support the breasts and avoid significant exercise, while the grafted fat is developing a new blood supply. This will take about 3 weeks, but it is highly recommended to wear the sports bra your surgeon suggested during both day and night for a month and in the day time for 3 months following the procedure.

There will be some swelling and bruising, accompanied by the expected discomfort, which will settle in 3 weeks. Paracetamol should be sufficient analgesia. Any stitches are removed at 7-10 days.

Some areas of the breast may feel firm or even tender for many months. This is deep bruising and fat, which is slower to incorporate.

You will be able to work from home in a couple of days and travel to work in 3-7 days. Moderate exercise is possible in 3 weeks and severe exercise in 3 months.

Your breasts have conformed to their final shape in 6 months. One of the most significant advantages of this kind of breast augmentation is that the results are permanent. Once the transferred fat cells are completely incorporated into the breast tissue, they are there for life and there's often no need for any additional fat transfer. The breasts may change shape over the patient's lifetime, of course, just as anyone's breasts will change due to the effects of age and gravity. However, the fat that was transferred and fully incorporated won't need to be removed or replaced, as is required with breast implants.

Another major advantage of the breast augmentation with fat transfer is that liposuction from the donor site also improves the body's overall silhouette permanently. It's important to note that while a significant amount of fat can be removed from the treated areas of the body during liposuction, some fat cells will be left behind. Weight gain will continue to be a possibility, just as it always is, so maintaining a healthy diet and exercise habits is important for preventing weight gain and preserving your new sleek figure.

Following fat transfer to the breasts you may have some bruising and swelling but this should subside within a couple of weeks.  Recovery time for fat transfer procedures to the body can depend on how many areas the initial liposuction was carried out on.  You may be bruised and swollen for 1-3 weeks and should avoid exercise during this time and you may wish to be off work for 1-2 weeks also.  The few days following your fat transfer augmentation you may feel some discomfort around the breasts and experience an aching sensation for a week or two following treatment - this is completely normal and will subside as will any bruising and swelling.

Fat transfer to breasts starts from £6750, however this will depend on your particular case. This can only be determined during a consultation with your surgeon, and following that an accurate price can be quoted.

You can view fat transfer breast augmentation before and after images in our Fat Transfer Breast Augmentation Before and After Gallery on this page.

At your consultation, your consultant will also share more extensive examples of fat transfer breast augmentation before and after results they have achieved.

We feel strongly that you can best understand what might be possible for you and your breast anatomy by reviewing the results of previous fat transfer breast augmentation surgery

Fat transfer to breast is the most effective alternative to breast implants when it comes to permanently increasing the size of the breasts. Fat transfer to breast relies on the natural volumizing effect of fat grafting and fat injections, and does not require the use of a foreign implant.

Fat transfer to breast relies on fat grafting and harvesting, and fat injections to the breast. This is a highly effective and increasingly popular surgical alternative to breast implants.

Other non-surgical alternatives to breast implants include push up bras, firming creams, and breast prostheses, but these techniques are of course unable to secure a comparable permanent change.

Cryotherapy treatment starts from £90

Yes. Once a lesion has been removed from the surface of the skin, it will not reappear.

Lesions may appear elsewhere on the skin, however.

Mohs micrographic surgery is named after the doctor who developed the technique, Dr Frederic Mohs.

Mohs surgery costs vary depending on the size and complexity of the treatment required – this will usually be established during your initial consultation.

Treatment usually starts from £3000

Mohs surgery is a combination of several specialised stages, and requires the complementary skills of a team of qualified professionals — a dermatologist, nursing staff, histo-technicians and sometime plastic or oculoplastic surgeons.

Only dermatologists or dermatological surgeons who are specially trained in Mohs micrographic surgery can perform this procedure. This training is additional to that required to become a general dermatologist.

Occasionally, support may be given by other specialists, e.g. a plastic surgeon to reconstruct the wound site, or to provide a skin graft or flap in more complex cases.

Cadogan Clinic is able to provide all of these skillsets to our Mohs patients, and the entire process takes place on-site in our theatres and recovery suite. Your consultation, Mohs surgery, reconstruction and follow-up are all done in the specialist unit courtesy of our multidisciplinary team.

All surgery must be performed in a proper operating theatre with appropriate air changes and nursing staff. Most procedures are performed under local anaesthetic, but general anaesthesia can be made available.

Mohs surgery is a complex process and can take as long as 3 – 4 hours, depending on the complexity of the cancer in question.

Removing the tissue and analysing it – often more than once - can take up to one or two hours, whilst the reconstruction of the site following the removal of the cancer can also take a similar amount of time.

The procedure is performed under local anaesthesia and involves three basic steps:

1. Surgical removal of tissue
2. Interpretation of tissue under the microscope
3. Removal and analysis of further layers of cancer if required, or reconstruction of the wound site

Mohs micrographic surgery is suitable for complex or high risk non-melanoma skin cancer removal.

It is particularly useful for:

+ Skin cancer is in an important cosmetic or functional area such as the eyelids, nose, ears, lips, genitals and hands, where it is preferable to remove as little healthy surrounding skin as possible
+ Skin cancer that has been treated in the past and has returned or recurred
+ Skin cancer where there has been previous surgery or radiotherapy on the treatment area
+ Skin cancer where scar tissue exists in the vicinity of the treatment area
+ Skin cancer with poorly defined edges, and where the tumour type is shown to be infiltrative
+ Skin cancer that is growing rapidly
+ Very large skin cancers where a minimised wound area is preferred

Mohs surgery is typically complete in a matter of hours, after which you will be discharged home.

You can expect to spend a full morning or afternoon at the Clinic at the very most.

Mohs surgery has the highest cure rate for both new (up to 99%) and recurrent tumours (95%).

Traditional surgical methods have a cure rate of around 90%.

Whilst the risks of Mohs surgery are minimal, all surgical procedures do carry some risk.

Risks can include:

+ Bleeding/bruising.
+ Infection
+ Minor nerve damage, or numbness

Yes, traditional surgical skin cancer removal or radiotherapy may be preferred. Your doctor will outline the preferred option at your initial consultation.

Mohs surgery is highly successful, and results are as high as 99 percent for the removal of a basal cell skin cancer and 95 percent for squamous cell skin cancer and other recurrent cancers.

Mohs Surgery is very accurate – your surgeon will be removing the skin layer by layer off the cancer site. The surgeon will then examine each layer under a microscope to determine if any cancer cells remain in the tissue. The process of removal and inspection under the microscope is repeated until all cancer cell tissue has been removed.

Mohs surgery has better long term cosmetic results - through this method, the surgeon can remove the entire cancer tissue without damaging the surrounding healthy skin tissue. This process keeps the scarring minimal and promotes quicker healing. Approximately 80% of patients will only need to have one layer of skin removed to remove the cancerous tissue. As the recurrence rate is lower than any other technique Mohs can overall give the best long term cosmetic result

Mohs surgery is largely pain-free. Aside from the initial injection of anaesthetic to numb the area, patients will feel very little pain either during of after the surgery.

Most patients experience no pain at all during or after the procedure. If minor pain is experienced, this can usually be handled with paracetamol or an over the counter pain medicine.

Mohs surgery will preserve as much healthy skin as possible and once the cancer is removed, your doctor or surgeon will ensure reconstruction to the area leaves as minimal scarring as possible.

Any scarring will improve over time but can take around a year to completely heal.

Scar injections and other treatments such as laser resurfacing are also available at Cadogan Clinic so we can provide you with an entire portfolio of treatments around your Mohs procedure.

Your doctor or surgeon will advise you on aftercare at your consultation and again immediately after your surgery.
You will be asked to return to the Clinic following your reconstruction to ensure your healing is progressing as planned.
Your dermatologist plays an important role in helping you to maintain cancer - free skin so regular check-ups can be arranged for the future.

A congenital penile curvature is caused by an uneven development of the two chambers that form the penis. This ultimately causes the erect penis to bend towards the aspect that has developed less. From this point of view, congenital penile curvature is quite similar to acquired penile curvature or Peyronie’s Disease, as in both cases there is a convex, longer and a concave, shorter aspect of the shaft penis. However, in case of congenital penile curvature, the asymmetry is due to an uneven development of the chambers of the penis while in Peyronie’s Disease the scarring associated with the plaque causes shortening of one aspect of the penile shaft. Congenital penile curvature usually becomes apparent during adolescence, when the chambers of the penis develop at the highest pace. Fortunately, most of the congenital penile curvatures are minor and do not interfere with penetrative sexual intercourse. Only a minority of congenital curvatures are so severe to require surgical correction.

Although congenital penile curvature may point virtually in any direction, in most cases the penis bends downward; in this case the curvature is called ventral. Ventral curvatures may present in isolation or together with anomalies of the penile urethra (the waterpipe). In congenital penile curvature the deformity can render penetrative sexual intercourse difficult or impossible and therefore can be cause of embarrassment and distress.

Both Peyronie’s Disease and congenital penile curvature can be found in adolescents and young adults and therefore the age of onset is not a good criterion to distinguish between the two conditions. However, in patients with congenital penile curvature there is no palpable lump, which is instead indicative of Peyronie’s Disease.  Also, while most congenital curvatures are ventral, in most patients with Peyronie’s Disease the penis bends upward. Waist deformities are also absent in patients with congenital curvature, which tend to be more gentle and harmonic than the one of patients with Peyronie’s Disease.

While erectile dysfunction is a common finding in patients with Peyronie’s Disease, most patients with congenital penile curvature have adequate erections, as there is no association between cardiovascular risk factors and congenital penile curvature. To render the situation more confusing, some of the patients with congenital penile curvature may eventually develop Peyronie’s Disease later in life and therefore both conditions may coexist.

The diagnosis of congenital penile curvature is based on history taking and on the examination of the patient. Most patients notice the curvature during adolescence. Examination of the penis will demonstrate a soft, elastic tunica albuginea and the absence of the indurated lumps typical of Peyronie’s Disease.

Deformity can be assessed only during erections, when the tunica albuginea of the penis is stretched to its maximum capacity. Self-photography of the erect penis can be a useful tool to identify the nature of the deformity. However, this can underestimate the exact tridimensional extent of the curvature, as the picture is by definition bi-planar. Also, an incomplete erection will make the deformity appear less pronounced. Alternatively, an artificial erection can be induced in the office with the administration of a vasoactive medication. This allows the surgeon to assess more precisely the tridimensional extent of the curvature and better plan the treatment options. Doppler ultrasound scan can be extremely useful to rule out the presence of plaques in the equivocal cases.

In patients with congenital ventral penile curvature it is very important to examine the urethral meatus and the distal urethra as congenital ventral penile curvature may be associated with anomalies of the penile urethra.

Approximately 40% of men at the age of 50 suffer from erectile dysfunction and this prevalence increases around 10% each decade.

Although prevalence of erectile dysfunction increases with age, erectile dysfunction should not be seen as an inevitable consequence of ageing.

Erectile dysfunction can be subdivided in psychogenic and organic. Psychogenic erectile dysfunction, which is more common in younger men, cannot trace his origin to a physical problem or disease and is due to performance anxiety.

Organic erectile dysfunction is much more common than psychogenic erectile dysfunction and in most cases the causes can be easily identified. Once identified, proper treatment can be recommended to help patients return to a satisfying sexual life.

Organic erectile dysfunction is usually caused by an injury (to the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves or arteries), by a disease (diabetes, high blood pressure or high cholesterol), by an operation (prostate gland removal, urinary bladder removal, surgery to the rectum, spinal surgery) and by substance abuse (tobacco, drugs, alcohol and some medications).

There is no effective medical treatment for congenital penile curvature as there is no scarred tissue to target. Therefore the only solution is surgery.

Surgical correction consists in the shortening of the longer, convex aspect of the shaft to make it even with the shorter, concave aspect. This is called tunica albuginea plication (TAP) or Nesbit procedure. Incision of the shorter side and grafting should not be offered as it gives poor results in patients with congenital penile curvature. This is because the curvature is more harmonic and not localized as in patients with Peyronie’s Disease. Fortunately, most patients with congenital penile curvature have an adequate penile size and therefore plication surgery will not cause excessive shortening. Straightening procedures are performed under general anaesthetic as a day case, are very reliable and safe in the hands of experienced, large volume surgeons like Mr Garaffa and patients can usually resume sexual activity four to six weeks afterwards

A thorough examination and history taking is necessary to understand the nature of erectile dysfunction. Patients with psychogenic erectile dysfunction may be further investigated with a nocturnal penile tumescence test to confirm that the nocturnal erections are preserved. The confirmation of the presence of normal nocturnal erections excludes the presence of an organic cause of erectile dysfunction and the patients should be therefore reassured and offered psychosexual counselling.

When organic erectile dysfunction is suspected and an underlying cause is not obvious from the examination and history, efforts should be made towards the identification of any underlying condition, since erectile dysfunction may represent the first sign of diffuse cardiovascular disease.

A prompt identification of any of the cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels is paramount to set up an adequate treatment plan and prevent further progression of the cardiovascular disease.

The Doppler Ultrasound scan of the penis is a relatively simple investigation but it provides very important information on the blood supply to the penis.

The management of the patient with erectile dysfunction is tailored to the underlying cause of erectile dysfunction and to patients’ preferences.

Various drugs are now available for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Some medications are administered orally, some are injected directly into the penis while other are inserted into the urethra at the tip of the penis. When medical treatment is ineffective and contraindicated, the vacuum constriction device or penile prosthesis implantation guarantee the rigidity necessary for sexual intercourse.

A penile prosthesis is an artificial stiffener, which is inserted under general anaesthetic into the chambers of the penis to guarantee the rigidity necessary for sexual intercourse. A penile prosthesis reproduces a normal erection and preserves all the normal feeling and sensation during intercourse. The quality of the erection obtained with a penile prosthesis is excellent and most patients and partners are very happy with the outcome post surgery.

The procedure usually takes just under an hour and the patient is discharged the same day. The prosthesis is usually inserted through a 3cm long incision via the scrotal sac. Sexual activity can be resumed 6 weeks post-surgery.

There are 2 kinds of penile prostheses: semirigid and inflatable. The semirigid or malleable prosthesis is made of two semirigid cylinders, which are inserted into the chambers of the penis. They produce a constant erection and the penis is usually bent laterally to be concealed in the underwear. The inflatable prosthesis is made of two cylinders, which sit in the chambers of the penis along with a scrotal pump and an intra-abdominal reservoir - a system filled with sterile water, and requires the patient to press a pump to transfer the fluid from the reservoir to the cylinders. This produces good level of rigidity and a natural looking erection. When the sexual intercourse is completed, the patient presses the deactivation button of the pump to transfer the fluid back into the reservoir and to render the penis flaccid.

Inflatable penile prosthesis by far produces the best results in terms of rigidity and concealing of the penis in flaccidity. Malleable penile prosthesis are only used in selected groups of patients.

Injections are indicated in these patients who do not respond to oral medications or when oral medications are contraindicated. Injection therapy induces an erection even without the need of sexual stimulation. The main advantage of injections is that it can be easily self-administered while the main risk is to induce a prolonged erection and may occur if an excessive dose of the medication has been injected.

The main reasons why patients quit injections are inadequate response, fear of needles, desire for a permanent treatment alternative and concerns over side effects.

Profhilo is a gel of hyaluronic acid, which is injected into pre-determined points to give a “hydrolift” effect. It boosts skin hydration and thereby tightening the skin. Hyaluronic acid can hold 1000 times its weight in water creating a significant deep moisturizing activity. In addition, Profhilo remodels the skin by stimulating elastin and collagen production, giving it a firmer, plumper and smoother texture.

The treatment leads to an overall improvement of the skin quality by restoring skin hydration, tone and elasticity.

Profhilo, unlike standard fillers, is made from hyaluronic acid which is not cross-linked. Its structure is a highly spreadable gel, which is not intended to replace volume locally, but flows over an extended area to improve the general skin condition. It can be used on the face, neck and body (décolleté, arms and hands).

The vacuum pump is a tube, which is sealed around the flaccid penis. With the creation of a negative pressure, blood is rushed into the chambers of the penis. Once the desired rigidity is achieved, a constricting ring is applied to the base of the penis to prevent the blood from rushing out of the penis and the vacuum pump is then removed. The vacuum pump can be a viable solution for patients who do not respond or are not suitable for oral and injectable medications and are not keen on penile prosthesis implantation.

We advise you to book a consultation with Mr Garaffa, one of the world leading experts in the diagnosis and management of erectile dysfunction and one of the largest penile prosthesis implanters in the world. Your condition will be treated discretely and you will be offered the treatment that best suits you and that will allow you to regain sexual activity with confidence.

Peyronie’s Disease is an acquired condition characterized by the formation of scars in the tunica albuginea of the penis. These scars can be easily palpated as a lump and tend to be tender for a few months during the initial phase of the disease.

Peyronie’s Disease plaques cause loss of elasticity of the tunica of the penis and this reduces the capacity of the penis to stretch during erections. Patients therefore frequently report penile shortening and deformity such as curvature and narrowing of the shaft penis, which become visible during erections. In flaccidity the lumps can still be palpated, but the deformity is not visible.

Peyronie’s disease is frequently associated with other known cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity and tobacco smoke. It is now established that more than 60% of patients have at least one known cardiovascular risk factor.

Worsening of the quality of the erections is quite common in patients with Peyronie’s Disease; although this can be potentially caused by the plaque itself, as it allows the blood to be rushed out of the tunica of the penis, certainly also the cardiovascular risk factors play a role by causing obstruction to the arteries feeding the penis, thus reducing the blood inflow into this organ.

Since Peyronie’s Disease can be associated with penile pain, shortening, deformity and worsening of the quality of the erection, it can be cause of severe distress in both the patient and the partner.

At present, the actual mechanism causing Peyronie’s disease is still unknown. It is suspected that Peyronie’s Disease occurs in the genetically predisposed patient following trauma to the erect penis during sexual activity. It is believed that patients with Peyronie’s Disease present an imbalance in the factors that regulate the healing process following tissue damage and this leads to excessive local tissue proliferation.

Typically Peyronie’s Disease presents an initial acute and a chronic phase. The acute phase is characterized by the formation of the plaque, which is tender at palpation as there is an active local inflammatory process. During this phase, stretching of the plaques, as physiologically occurs during erections, elicits vivid pain. Plaque size and type of deformity tend to change over time during this phase. The chronic phase starts when the inflammatory process eventually settles, usually within 9 months from the onset of the condition. At this stage the pain generally settles and the deformity does not change any more in time. 

Peyronie’s Disease is a quite common condition as it affects around 10% of men. Although it is typically a condition of the fifth and sixth decade of life, Peyronie’s Disease can occur at any age. Usually in the adolescent the condition tends to be more aggressive in terms of size of the plaque and degree of deformity produced.

Potentially any male can develop Peyronie’s Disease, although the condition is more likely to occur in the fifth and sixth decade of life and in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

Due to the strong link between Peyronie’s Disease and disease, patients presenting with this condition should always be actively screened for the known cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol levels.

The initial, acute phase of Peyronie’s Disease is usually characterized by the formation of a tender nodule on the tunica of the penis. Erections at this stage tend to be painful and patients usually notice a penile deformity, which, at this stage, still changes over time.

The inflammatory process progressively settles and this leaves a non-tender nodule on the tunica of the penis. At this stage erections are generally not painful and patients usually complain of penile shortening and deformity, which become apparent during erections. Many patients also report a progressive worsening of the quality of the erections.

Peyronie’s Disease diagnosis is based on history taking and on the examination of the patient. Frequently patients report that the disease has started following a trauma to the penis during sexual activity. Examination of the penis will demonstrate the presence of a lump, which can be elastic or indurated in texture.

Deformity can be assessed only during erections, when the tunica albuginea of the penis is stretched to its maximum capacity. Self-photography of the erect penis can be a useful tool to identify the nature of the deformity. However, this can underestimate the exact tridimensional extent of the curvature, as the picture is by definition bi-planar. Also, an incomplete erection will make the deformity appear less pronounced.

Alternatively, an artificial erection can be induced in the office with the administration of a vasoactive medication. This allows the surgeon to assess more precisely the tridimensional extent of the curvature and better plan the treatment options.

As patients with Peyronie’s Disease frequently have cardiovascular disease, which might have produced a degree of obstruction of the arteries feeding the penis, a thorough assessment of the penile blood supply should be carried out performing an Eco Colour Doppler Ultrasound Scan. This investigation will provide the surgeon with extremely precious information that will also help to better decide which is the most appropriate treatment option for each specific patient.

There are various treatment options for Peyronie’s disease depending on the progression of the disease:

a) There is very little evidence that medical treatment is effective during the beginning phase of the disease. Treatment options such as oral medication, topical treatments and supplements such as oral vitamin E, Tamoxifen, Pentoxyphilline, Potassium Paraaminobenzoate, Colchicine and Verapamil have been offered to patients with no proven success on reducing penile curvature or plaque size, however they may help with pain management and potentially slowing the progression of the disease. 

b) There may be rationale for penile stretching and straightening exercises during the acute phase of the disease. This can be achieved either by enhancing natural erections with the administration of  Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors such as Sildenafil, Tadalafil and Vardenafil, or mechanically, with the use of a vacuum or stretching device. Either treatment on its own is unlikely to show an enormous benefit, and should be performed together to get any result. The evidence of the effectiveness of the use of the vacuum pump or penile stretching device in isolation to mechanically straighten the penis is minimal. In the best-case scenario, the regular use of these devices may just slightly reduce penile curvature, which would be beneficial only in very selected patients (under 10%).

c) Injections of the Collagenase of the Clostridium Histolyticum (Xiapex®) is one of the latest treatment options available for Peyronie’s and the first non-surgical therapy that has proved effective in treating Peyronie’s plaque. These injections treat the curvature by “chemically” softening the plaque and restoring some of the length lost due to the scarring process. Xiapex® injections provide better results if combined with the regular use of a vacuum pump or of the penile stretching device in order to provide extra stretch of the plaque softened by the Collagenase of the Clostridium Histolyticum. These should be performed at 4 weeks intervals and the residual curvature should be assessed after the third injection, once the healing process at the level of the plaque is likely to be complete. If significant deformity persists, the cycle injection/stretching can be repeated. In expert hands, Xiapex® injections are a simple and safe procedure and can be performed in the outpatients’ clinic and would typically be the first line of treatment (subject to Consultant doctors diagnosis).

d) Surgery represents the gold standard treatment for Peyronie’s Disease and its aim is to guarantee a penis straight and hard enough to allow the patient to engage in penetrative sexual intercourse without pain or discomfort. The choice of the best surgical approach, apart from patients’ preference, should take in consideration the quality of erection and the degree of deformity and shortening. In patients with preserved erections, the curvature can be corrected either by shortening the longer side of the penis, which has not been affected by Peyronie’s Disease, or lengthening the shorter side incising the plaque and interposing a graft. Both procedures can be performed as a day case. Before the introduction of Xiapex, surgery was the only effective treatment for penile curvature caused by Peyronie’s and still remains the most successful for most patients. Surgery should only be performed after the disease progress has stopped which usually occurs 12 months from onset (chronic phase).

Buried penis indicates the clinical situation when the penis is hidden in the prepubic fat. A buried penis is usually present in patients with excessive fat in the pubic area (=lower abdomen) or when excessive skin has been removed during circumcision or when the two situations coexist. 

In patients with buried penis sexual and urinary function are severely compromised.

Quality of life tends to be poor as the patient is not able to expose the penis while urinating and therefore the pooling of urine in the abdominal skinfolds causes maceration of the skin and recurrent urinary infections, which can ultimately lead to renal damage. As the skin is macerated by the urine and is always moist, the formation of lichen sclerosus is quite common and this makes the situation worse.

Buried penis frequently requires the combined intervention of a bariatric surgeon and of the uro-andrologist. 

Significantly overweight patients need to lose weight first and in this case the intervention of the bariatric surgeon can be extremely useful.

Once patients have reached the target weight, the management of the buried penis requires the excision of the suprapubic fat and of all the excess skin performing an abdominoplasty. 

If there is not enough penile skin, or if the skin needs to be removed because it is affected by lichen sclerosus, the penis needs to be reconstructed using a variety of skin grafts. In expert hands, abdominoplasty, excision of the suprapubic fat and penile reconstruction, yield excellent functional and cosmetic results and allow patients to restore sexual and urinary function.

A skin graft is a patch of skin that is surgically removed from one area of the body (=donor site) and transplanted to another area (=the recipient area). The characteristics of the skin graft depend on the area from which the graft has been removed and on its thickness. The choice of the donor area and of the thickness of grafts should be therefore tailored to the characteristics of the recipient area and to patient’s expectations. 

A skin graft might be necessary to reconstruct the skin of the glans and/or of the penile shaft. Usually, grafts yield excellent results in patients who have lost part of penile skin because of trauma or of excessive circumcision. Skin grafts can be extremely useful also following surgical excision of lichen sclerosus of the penis or of penile cancer. In most cases, following grafting, patients can resume a normal sexual and urinary function.

This treatment is perfect for those with small stubborn areas of fat which will not shift after diet and exercise. For those with larger areas of fat, liposuction or other treatments may be better suited. Sculpsure is also not suitable for those pregnant or breastfeeding.

This fat reduction laser treatment can be carried out on most areas of the body, with the most popular being the stomach, flanks, upper arms ('bingo wings') and thighs.

Sculpsure will be performed by one of our highly qualified aesthetic practitioners.

Treatment takes 25 minutes per session.

More than one session may be needed depending on your individual case, but you can be rest assured that the fat cells are permanently destroyed in each treatment.

Your practitioner will be able to advise how many sessions are needed and the duration between treatments following an initial consultation.

Most of our patients see results from 6 weeks onwards after their treatment and the destroyed fat cells are flushed out of the body. We usually say that it can take 12 weeks to notice optimum results.

Yes, once destroyed fat cells will not regenerate. Changes to diet and exercise regime following treatment, will result in the development of new fat deposits however.

Non surgical fat reduction treatments are generally not as effective as traditional liposuction, however, and instead provide effective permanent options for patients unwilling or unable to undergo surgery.

The SculpSure laser treatment is not painful, patients report feeling a tingling sensation with feelings of cool and warmth intermittently.
No anaesthesia is required.

Sculpsure is very safe. The complication rate is low, with reports of temporary redness, tenderness and swelling as the primary side effects.

There is no downtime at all after Sculpsure treatment. You will be able to resume your daily activities immediately.

There are various clinical conditions in genetic male patients where penile reconstruction may be required. Among these conditions, the most common are penile tissue loss due to trauma, surgery or excision of benign or malignant conditions of the penis.

When sexual and urinary functions are compromised in patients with buried penis or lichen sclerosus of the penis, penile reconstruction can yield excellent cosmetic and functional results and allow them to resume sexual and urinary function with confidence.

Acne Clear treatment is not painful. When you come to the Cadogan Clinic for your acne treatment initial consultation, your experienced aesthetic practitioner will explain the procedure to you. The practitioner is there to guide you along your journey and answer any questions you may have. He or she is your partner in the procedure and wants to make sure you are as comfortable before, during, and after the procedure as you can possibly be.

Before the treatment gets started your practitioner will give you a special pair of goggles to wear to protect your eyes from the light of the laser. A cooling gel may be applied to the treatment area, to soothe the skin before starting the acne laser treatment. This gel will also help minimize any tingling sensations or dryness after the procedure is over. During treatment, your practitioner will check with you to ensure you are staying comfortable and keep you apprised of how much time is left.

The Acne Clear laser system uses an intense blue wavelength of light to destroy the bacteria known to be a cause of acne. This system targets the bacteria and dead cells that have built up both on and below the surface of your skin.
It is an effective procedure and appears to improve acne vulgaris with a reduction in inflammation and the number of pustules and papules in some individuals. It is even more effective in combatting acne when used with other acne treatments as recommended by your Cadogan Clinic aesthetic practitioner.

Immediately following your acne laser treatment, you may notice some mild redness and very slight swelling, although this is very easily concealed and settles within 24-48 hours. Your Cadogan practitioner will recommend that you use daily broad-spectrum sunscreen protection following your acne laser treatment to maintain optimal skin health.

Immediately following your acne laser treatment, you may notice some mild redness and very slight swelling, although this is very easily concealed and settles within 24-48 hours.  Your Cadogan Cosmetics practitioner will recommend that you use daily broad-spectrum sunscreen protection following your acne laser treatment to maintain optimal skin health.

General advice is to take two weeks off work following breast reduction surgery, since swelling is greatest during this time and it is advisable to give wounds time to heal.  During this period it is advisable to keep physical activity to a minimum or drive. It is, however, advisable to mobilise as soon as possible after breast reduction surgery.

If stitches need to be removed, this is generally carried out at about two weeks after the operation.  At this stage dressings are removed and women are encouraged to wear comfortable crop tops or sports bras for support until any swelling and discomfort has resolved, after which they can start wearing normal bras in their new size – this may take a few weeks longer.

Massage and moisturizing are a vital process of breast reduction aftercare and expert advice will be given on the best techniques from our dedicated team.

Following traditional breast reduction techniques, you should expect a small degree of scarring.

There are different techniques for breast reduction and the scars created will depend on the technique employed, as well as the patient in question and the size of the breasts being reduced. Most commonly you should expect some scarring around the nipple, across the bottom of the breast fold, and a vertical scar linking the nipple scar to the breast fold scar giving rise to the so-called ‘inverted T’ or anchor pattern. Some surgeons prefer to perform the operation omitting the breast fold scar giving rise to the ‘vertical scar’ reduction. Not everybody is necessarily eligible for this and it tends to be used for not such large breasts.

Due to our specialism in liposuction, it is possible in some cases to perform breast reduction using liposuction techniques only. This technique is often known as ‘scarless breast reduction’ since the incisions required can be made in less prominent positions, such as under the arms, where they cannot be seen.

Regardless of which technique you undergo, Cadogan Clinic is able to provide each and every one of its patients with access to one of London’s most advanced scar minimization programmes, led by our scar prevention team here at the Clinic. Our nurses have decades of experience and will provide you with the tools and techniques to support your healing process as effectively as possible.

Breast reduction surgery necessarily requires an incision that will result in a breast reduction scar that will likely be red and slightly raised in the weeks and months after your procedure, before it fades completely.

Breast reduction scar visibility can, however, be greatly impacted by the quality of the surgeon you choose, as well as the level of aftercare you receive.

In the hands of a skilled surgeon the breast reduction scar can be positioned very discreetly during your breast reduction surgery, whilst an expert scar minimization team can provide you with the tools and techniques to enhance the healing process. For example, the appearance of your breast reduction scars can be reduced by regular moisturisation and massage techniques, all of which our dedicated team will advise our patients in the days following your procedure.

Due to our specialism in liposuction, it is possible in some cases to perform breast reduction surgery using liposuction techniques only. This technique is often known as ‘scarless breast reduction’ since the incisions required can be made in less prominent positions, such as under the arms, where they can not been seen.

Breast reduction recovery time varies from case to case but you should be able to return to your normal day-to-day activities after about two weeks. However, we recommend our patients be sensitive to their body and try not to do too much too soon, ceasing activities after or during which any pain is experienced.

We recommend temporary suspension of activities such as going to the gym, and practicing aerobics and sports that involve using your arms. Any activity that requires lifting your elbows above your shoulders should also be carefully monitored.

All breast reduction techniques require an incision that will result in a scar that will likely be red and slightly raised in the weeks and months after your procedure, before fading completely.

Scar visibility can, however, be greatly impacted by the quality of the surgeon you choose, as well as the level of aftercare you receive. In the hands of a skilled surgeon the scar can be positioned very discreetly, whilst an expert scar minimization team can provide you with the tools and techniques to enhance the healing process. For example, scar the appearance can be reduced by regular moisturisation and massage techniques, all of which our dedicated team will advise our patients in the days following your procedure.

Due to our specialism in liposuction, it is possible in some cases to perform breast reduction using liposuction techniques only. This technique is often known as ‘scarless breast reduction’ since the incisions required can be made in less prominent positions, such as under the arms, where they can not been seen.

Breast reduction surgery is a highly effective technique to help lose breast weight and reduce the impact of large, heavy breasts.

Heavy breasts are uncomfortable and can cause both physical discomfort and pain, and psychological distress.

Breast reduction surgery removes excess breast tissue from naturally large and  heavy breasts and relieves the associated discomfort.

You can view breast reduction before and after images in our Breast Reduction Before and After Gallery on this page.

At your consultation, your consultant will also share more extensive examples of breast reduction before and after results they have achieved.

We feel strongly that you can best understand what might be possible for you and your breast anatomy by reviewing the results of previous breast reduction surgery

Ageing skin is a part of life but there are some measures we can take to help slow the process down, such as:

+ Wear sunscreen daily.
+ Wear a wide-brimmed sun hat and sunglasses.
+ Use skincare products containing anti-ageing ingredients such as peptides and vitamin A.
+ Avoid smoking.
+ Invest in professional skin treatments which stimulate collagen production

Anti-ageing injectables are an excellent tool for supporting such preventative measures, as well as reducing the appearance of lines and wrinkles that have already developed.

The treatment can take between 20 and 30 minutes, depending on the area being treated. Repeat visits can be shorter, and take between 10 – 15 minutes

Anti-ageing injectable treatments in the UK are currently unregulated meaning any aesthetic practitioner can perform them. This has led to the proliferation of low quality 'high street' providers, and filler treatments even being made available in non-medical environments such as gyms.

At the Cadogan Clinic we believe such practices are extremely risky and highly correlated with unsafe and poor aesthetic outcomes.

We only offer consultant – led injectable treatments, performed by highly trained cosmetic dermatologists or plastic surgeons.

Pain should be very minimal as the needle used is very fine and only a very small amount of toxin is required.

Like any injection, you may feel the point of entry but the sensation will be bearable. We do not recommend taking painkillers or anti-inflammatories before your procedure as these can thin the blood and increase your chance of post treatment bruising.

The results from anti-ageing injectables are not immediate and it can take up to a week to become fully obvious.

The chemical reaction can take different times to develop between patients, which is why some patients may see results quicker compared to others.

You will be invited back into the Clinic after two weeks to review your results and receive a complimentary top – up if required.

We specialise in the delivery of exceptionally precise treatments, and our consultants can control your outcome based on your stated personal preferences. Some patients prefer an extremely subtle change, whilst others may prefer something slightly more meaningful.

Either way your results will look natural, as our specialists will use the natural contours of your face to deliver the very best outcomes. You will also retain a full array of facial expressions and will not experience the 'frozen' look, provided a trained practitioner has delivered the correct dosage.

This will all be discussed comprehensively at your consultation.

We also offer Chemical skin peels, laser resurfacing, and micro - needling as highly effective non invasive treatments for lines and wrinkles

Profhilo is an excellent choice for those noticing the signs of aging skin but aren't ready to have dermal fillers done yet. Profhilo is wonderful for patients looking to have a rejuvenated look, without adding volume in specific places but instead a more overall natural youthful glow.

This is typically after the age of 30 when we begin to lose large amounts of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid.

Profhilo is most typically used on the face, however it's often used to rejuvenate the neck, décolleté, arms, hands and neck areas as well. It help reduce sagginess in skin and wrinkled texture, so it's become more popular to use as a treatment on the décolleté where there is often sun damage and wrinkles as we age.

To achieve the best results, we recommend that you have two treatments done within 4 weeks of each other. You may start to see results as soon as one week following treatment, but it may take up to 4 weeks to see the full results.

Laser hair removal can be carried out on most facial and body areas, but common areas include:

+ Face: upper lip, chin, beard and jaw line, nose, neck and ears
+ Body: Arms, underarms, legs, toes, bikini area, back, shoulders, chest and stomach

You will be required to fill out a medical questionnaire during your initial consultation. This will enable your practitioner to assess your suitability and safety and determine the right method of hair removal for you.

Laser hair removal is effective for the majority of hair types, except very light blonde, grey or red hair as these have little or no melanin for the laser to work on. Laser hair removal is, however, suitable and safe for darker ethnic skin types.

Laser hair removal for men is a very popular treatment at Cadogan. We typically treat those with excess chest and back hair, or those who suffer from ingrown facial hairs.

To prepare for a laser hair removal treatment you will need to shave the area of skin the day a few days before.

On the day, you'll wear specially designed goggles to protect your eyes. Local anaesthetic isn't necessary but the aesthetician can apply a numbing cream to the area of skin being treated if required.

A hand-held device is then held to your skin and the laser is triggered. This may feel like an elastic band snapping at your skin. Most patients find this bearable, but slight discomfort may be felt if you are extremely sensitive. Each session takes between 15 minutes to an hour depending on the number of areas being treated. Once the treatment is done, a cooling gel is applied to the area and you are able to resume your day.

Laser hair removal permanently reduces the number of unwanted hairs in a given area by up to 90%.

Once an area has been treated, actively growing hair follicles should not re-grow, but some patients like to come back for a top-up treatment after a couple of years as maintenance.

The amount of treatments you need will depend on the area being treated and your hair and skin type.

Most patients require between four to six treatments, six weeks apart, in order to see permanent hair reduction. This is to ensure we are able to follow the hair growth cycle, as the laser only destroys hair in the early growth phase and at any time 20% of the hair is dormant.

Many clinics are reluctant to treat Asian or darker skin because of the specific skills and technology required as well as the risks of burns and hyper-pigmentation.

We treat patients of all skin types at the Cadogan Clinic.

We are pleased to be able to treat any skin type, ranging from very fair to very dark. Our lasers can be adjusted to work with any hair and skin combination, provided that there is enough pigment in the hair (i.e. it is dark enough to attract the laser.) Laser hair removal is now safe for olive, brown and black skin tones.

If you have a suntan or have used fake tan, you will not be able to be treated straight away as it is possible to have a reaction to the laser.

This is due to the fact that UV, (Ultraviolet) exposure stimulates the melanin activity in your skin and that laser hair removal predominantly works by targeting melanin in order to destruct the hair follicle from producing hair.

When tanned, it is advised to wait 4 to 6 weeks before resuming your treatments. You will be required to have a patch test on the areas being treated to ensure that there is no remanence of an active tan.

Lasers can not distinguish between the active melanin in the skin and the melanin in the hair.

If your aesthetic practitioner feels that your skin is tanned, the procedure will have to be postponed, to allow the tan to fade and a patch test will be required to commence your treatments safely after a minimum of 48 hours.

Yes! Unlike waxing, tweezing, threading, bleaching and epilating, it is absolutely fine to shave your hair in between your sessions, making laser a much more manageable 'self-maintenance' method of hair removal.

You should shave no less than 24 hours before the day of your next treatment to avoid irritation on the skin. When you shave the treatment area, you also superficially exfoliating the skin and this may cause some sensitivity.

After your laser hair removal session you may shave the area after 48 hours, if need be.

There is no downtime required with the Cynosure Elite+ meaning you can continue with your day immediately after treatment. The area may be red with a raised rash for up to 24 hours afterwards. Your skin will be more sensitive to the sun after laser hair removal so avoid sun exposure for a few days after treatment and use sunscreen. Your aesthetic practitioner will advise you on any other aftercare needed

Our treatments are very gentle and virtually pain-free. Some of our patients compare the sensation to the flick of an elastic band.

Waxing regularly and over long periods of time can cause damage such as darkening and lightening of the skin (hyper and hypo pigmentation) and can cause in-grown hairs which can lead to scarring. It is also a process that requires ongoing repetition.

Laser hair removal, by contrast, permanently reduces the thickness of the hairs, is not abrasive and does not have a negative impact on skin tone and texture. After a course of treatment, you can expect a permanently improved area requiring no ongoing treatment to maintain results.

We use the Cynosure Elite+ as it's wavelengths are the gold standard in the industry for laser hair removal. It's the first machine of its kind that is able to treat darker skin types, and is the safest wavelength for hair reduction. It also has a dual-wavelength function so it can safely work deeper into the hair follicles, meaning you can expect to see results with fewer sessions than other hair removal procedures.

There are many different manufacturers of hair removal lasers. We use the industry's leading brand of laser device, The Cynosure Elite, which is suitable to treat both fair and dark skin types and the majority of hair types, effectively and safely.

The Cynosure Elite emits two different laser wavelengths, the Alexandrite 755nm and the Nd:Yag 1064nm. These both work in different ways to destroy the hair follicle in the dermal layer.

+ The Alexandrite works by converting high energy light into heat energy, which is then targeted on the melanin in the hair, destroying it. This is also known as thermolysis.
+ The Nd:Yag wavelength works by targeting the blood supply of the root follicle using long pulses of energy, which is also converted into heat. This coagulates the blood supply to the hair follicle slowing down growth and the production of quality hair.

Those patients that have been exposed to direct sun or tanning light will require a test patch. The increased melanin of tanning competes with oxyhaemoglobin of blood vessels of the hair follicles and may cause increased pigmentation of the skin.

Lasers only destroy hair follicles in the active growth phase known as Anagen. Hairs grow in a cycle known as Anagen, Telogen and Catagen. Anagen is the first stage of active growth. Catagen is the resting stage of growth and Telogen is when the hair follicle recedes and the hair is shed ready for the Anagen stage to begin again. This process takes approximately 6-8 weeks. This is why it is recommended to have your sessions at these intervals catching another third of the follicles each time.

The recommended minimum number of sessions for hair removal is 6-8. You may require more sessions if you have an underlying hormonal imbalance, you are male or have dark hair on dark skin or light hair on light skin. The contrasting dark hair on light skin works best.

We use the Fitzpatrick scale to establish what category skin type each of our patients have

+ Type 1: always burns, never tans (pale, freckles).
+ Type 2: usually burns, minimal tanning.
+ Type 3: sometimes burns mildly, tans uniformly.
+ Type 4: burns minimally, always tans well (moderate brown).
+ Type 5: very rarely burns, tans very easily (dark brown).
+ Type 6: Never burns (deeply pigmented dark brown to darkest brown)

Both laser and IPL produce energy to destroy the hair follicle but that is where the similarity ends.

Cynosure and Soprano laser hair removal technology provides results which last much longer than IPL hair removal, since it can focus on a concentrated area and is a lot less painful. IPL involves a much wider distribution of energy.

IPL is also usually limited to lighter skin types whereas Cynosure and the Soprano XL can be used on Asian and darker skin.
We use the IPL machine at Cadogan Clinic is used for skin rejuvenation treatments for which it provides great results.

As we age our skin's underlying structure gradually begins to break down and we begin to lose skin volume, elasticity and firmness. This occurs all over the face and body to leave us with lines and wrinkles and sagging skin.

In the lip area the ageing process is particularly noticeable. Over time lips become less full and plump, and begin to lose their definition around the borders both on the top of the mouth (Cupid's Bow) and around the corners of the mouth. Vertical lines and folds also begin to appear around the mouth, particularly among smokers.

Lip filler is a quick, safe and effective treatment for rejuvenating the lip region and restoring a youthful appearance to these age-related mouth and lip conditions.

The treatment can take between 20 and 30 minutes, depending on the area being treated. Repeat visits can be shorter, and take between 10 – 15 minutes

We only offer consultant – led lip filler treatments, performed by highly trained cosmetic dermatologists or plastic surgeons.

Dermal Filler treatments in the UK are currently unregulated meaning any aesthetic practitioner can perform them. This has led to the proliferation of low quality 'high street' providers, and filler treatments even being made available in non-medical environments such as gyms.

At the Cadogan Clinic we believe such practices are extremely risky and highly correlated with unsafe and poor aesthetic outcomes.

It is best to arrive at the Clinic with your skin as best prepared for your dermal filler treatment as it can be. This would ideally include not drinking alcohol for 2-3 days prior to your appointment to lessen the risk of bleeding and bruising, as well as having had plenty of rest the night before your treatment to ensure you arrive feeling calm and relaxed.

It is also advised that you do not consume ibuprofen and aspirin for 1 week prior to your appointment as these can also thin your blood making bruising more likely.

Dermal filler treatments are generally not painful, although the amount of discomfort you experience may vary depending on the area.

Treatments around the lip are typically the most uncomfortable but the pain can be easily tolerated through the anaesthetic included in the filler and the application, if required, of additional topically applied anaesthetic cream.

Your lip enhancement treatment should be virtually painless.

There is typically no downtime at all.

There may be a slight mild redness, swelling, tenderness, bruising, or itching which usually subsides after a few hours following treatment - most patients can return to work or to their regular activities immediately after receiving treatment, although we recommend 24hrs before doing any vigorous exercise.

Dermal fillers work instantly so you should start to see the results immediately, and certainly within the first 48 hours. We typically recommend allowing a week or so before expecting to see the final results, in order to allow for any minor swelling or bruising to subside.

We specialise in the delivery of exceptionally precise treatments, and our consultants can control your outcome based on your stated personal preferences. Some patients prefer an extremely subtle change, whilst others may prefer something slightly more significant.

Either way your results will look natural, as our specialists will use the natural contours of your face to deliver the very best outcomes. You will also retain a full array of facial expressions.

This will all be discussed comprehensively at your consultation.

We only use temporary dermal fillers at the Cadogan Clinic. Our Dermal Filler treatments are therefore not permanent. How long they last depends on things like the type of filler and where it's injected. Lip fillers usually last between 6 and 18 months.

Lip fillers are extremely safe when delivered by a trained medical practitioner. Outcomes can be managed precisely by a technical practitioner, and results are also not permanent and can be rectified ('dissolved') if they are not to your satisfaction.

That said, whilst extremely rare when fillers are delivered in a medical environment by a medical professional, possible risks include:

+ Asymmetry, or uneven result
+ Allergic reaction
+ Bruising, bleeding on injection site, swelling
+ Damage to skin and possible scarring
+ Lumps of filler under the skin
+ Skin necrosis
+ Infection

These risks will be fully discussed at your consultation prior to your consent.

After your lip filler treatment your lips may feel slightly tender and sore for the first few days, and you may be able to feel the newly added filler in your lips.

This should wear off soon after treatment.

We typically recommend you wait at least 12 hours before applying any makeup, lip liner or lipstick.

During your consultation you will discuss your expectations in detail with your trained medical consultant, so there really should not be any surprise when it comes to the results.

That said, if you are unhappy with the results you are free to revisit the Clinic to see if your concerns can be rectified by the addition of further lip filler, or neutralised by administering a solution that dissolves the filler almost instantly, leaving no lasting damage or effect.

Over time the naturally occurring active agent in dermal fillers – hyaluronic acid – will wear off. At this point you will need to visit the Clinic for additional treatment.

Bruising and swelling after lip filler can occur so we recommend following the below guidelines before and after your treatment:

+ Not taking aspirin or ibuprofen in the week prior to treatment and the two days afterward
+ Avoiding alcohol at least 24 hours before and after your treatment
+ Avoiding strenuous exercise for 24 hours after treatment
+ Avoiding extreme temperatures wherever possible (e.g. steam rooms, saunas)

Lip injections at Cadogan Clinic are very safe but minor side effects include redness, swelling and itching at the injection site and bruising which can last from 2 to 10 days. If you find that you have an uneven result, your practitioner will see you for a treatment review and this can be rectified. If you suffer from cold sores, dermal fillers to lips may not be a good treatment for you. An allergic reaction to the products used is unlikely.

If you’re looking for laser hair removal in London we have one of the best laser hair removal machines available, the Soprano XL at Cadogan Clinic. As well as saving money on razors and waxing, laser hair removal is suitable for all skin types, gets effective results in permanent hair reduction, combats troublesome ingrown hairs and is relatively quick and easy.

Light emitted from the laser is absorbed by the hair and destroys it at the root, which prevents re-growth. The laser light targets the pigmentation in the hair, which is why laser hair removal gets great results on darker hair.

Laser hair removal is completely safe and one of the most popular aesthetic treatments available for both men and women.

Soprano XL laser hair removal at Cadogan Clinic is virtually painless but any minor discomfort can be reduced by applying a numbing cream beforehand.

The Cadogan Clinic was founded by Mr Bryan Mayou, the surgeon responsible for introducing liposuction into the UK more than 40 years ago.

We now have the country's leading team of liposuction experts working here at the Clinic, and more experience than anyone else in the various techniques available. We perform more liposuction surgeries than any other private clinic in the UK.

We carefully evaluate all available liposuction techniques and are able to offer different kinds, depending on your specific condition and needs. We currently offer Lipomatic, MicroAir, BodyJet and MicroLiposuction techniques. We also offer SmartLipoMPX, which is liposuction done via ultrasound.

Liposuction provides a quick, safe and effective solution for permanent removal of unwanted excess fat deposits from the body. When you lose weight, by diet or exercise, all your fat cells shrink in size, but they do not disappear. Liposuction is perfect for exercise-resistant fat deposits in areas like under the chin, in the cheeks, saddlebags, ankles, and others.

The fat cells themselves are removed by liposuction and are therefore not available to become enlarged again under any circumstances. Even if you put on a lot of weight the new relative shape remains. This procedure makes your clothes fit better, gives you a more ideal shape, and uses small incisions that will not leave major scarring.

The amount of weight you lose is directly proportional to the amount of fat removed from your body. This means if you have a single procedure removing five pounds of fat, your weight will be down by five pounds.

The liposuction operation targets a specific area of the body, but if you are looking for significant reshaping in multiple areas on your body, you can address multiple problem areas during one larger procedure.

Liposuction is a predictable and low-risk solution for fat removal. At the Cadogan Clinic, the procedure can be done under general or local anaesthesia, and as a result, puts your body under relatively little stress. It’s done as a day case procedure and you’re able to go home afterwards to rest.

You should be aware that liposuction is not an effective solution to cellulite or obesity. If you need treatment for cellulite you should discuss combining procedures with your expert surgeon. Consult with your surgeon if you are looking for major weight loss. Liposuction may be part of a long-term treatment plan.

Make sure you follow all directions provided to you by your surgeon at the Cadogan Clinic to ensure you see the best results. These may be as simple as wearing your specialized compression garment, staying hydrated, and maintaining a healthy diet.

Liposuction recovery is relatively swift due to the relatively straightforward nature of the surgery.

Liposuction recovery starts the moment you come around from sedation. We use advanced TIVA anaesthetic techniques to ensure that you wake up quicker and with less nausea, and your liposuction recovery can start immediately.

We recommend taking a week of work to allow for slight bruising and swelling to subside. Pain should be fairly minimal and you can usually resume normal daily activities and exercise within a few weeks. Strenuous activities are discouraged during this period. Light walking before your procedure prevents blood clotting and minimizes swelling.

Liposuction recovery involves minimal pain, but any excess pain can be managed with over the counter painkillers. You will be issued with a compression garment to reduce the swelling, and this should be worn for 6 weeks.

Liposuction recovery is finally complete form around 6 weeks when results should start to be visible. Full results will take between  6 – 12 months.  

How much liposuction costs at the Cadogan Clinic depends on the number of areas to be treated.

A single area of liposuction costs £3,950. Each additional area of liposuction costs less than the previous area of liposuction costs. Your patient advisor can you talk you through liposuction costs in full.

We were founded by the pioneer of liposuction in the UK. He has hand picked a selection of the top liposuction surgeons in UK. Liposuction cost of surgery includes your all your post-operative care and 24/7 nursing assistance and ongoing scar management. 

Additional treatments that can complement your liposuction surgery and assist with healing can be purchased separately. These include laser scar management, a course of lymphatic drainage massages and accent laser skin tightening.

Juvederm treatments are relatively painless procedures, although some patients may experience a small discomfort when undergoing the treatment.

There are several measures we put into place to keep the pain and discomfort to a minimum, these include:

- The use of numbing cream prior to the injection.
- The use of ice packs or other cooling agents post procedure
- The use of lidocaine to temporarily block the nerves that sense pain. This can be mixed directly with Juvederm.

The use of pain reduction methods will highly improve the experience for the patient.

If you would like to find out more information, please book a consultation with one of our specialists.

The treatment is not painful but many patients describe the feeling similar to that of flicking a rubber band against the skin therefore a topical anaesthetic cream can be used beforehand if required.

The procedure can be done under local or general anaesthesia, but can be uncomfortable, slower and more difficult to obtain good results under local anaesthesia.  We would reserve this for small areas, such as the neck, or smaller pockets of fat.  We use a variant anaesthesia called TIVA (Total Intravenous Anaesthesia) that is delivered by our team of top anaesthetists.  Intravenous delivery enables our anaesthetic team to monitor the depth of anaesthesia more closely using a measurement of the brainwaves.  The result is that you will wake up feeling much better than traditional anaesthesia and will be ready to go home the same day. 

Both men and women undergo liposuction every year to achieve a variety of different goals. For men, liposuction can often successfully treat gynecomastia and other fat areas around their chest and torso, while women use it more commonly around the stomach, hips and thighs. If one or more of the following apply to you, liposuction is an option to consider:

1. You have excess fat deposits on your hips, belly, thighs, neck or chest that won’t respond to diet or exercise.

2. You feel like certain areas are out of proportion with the rest of your figure. Reducing excess fat on one area of the body can bring it into better balance with your natural features.

Liposuction is excellent for reducing areas of fat and sculpting a beautifully natural contour, and using liposuction to remove excess fat on one area of the body can make you seem more in proportion. The ideal liposuction patient has localised fat deposits & good skin tone.

However, it’s important to have realistic expectations about what liposuction can achieve. If any of the following apply to you, then liposuction may only offer limited success in helping you achieve your goals. Your cosmetic surgeon can recommend the options best suited to your needs.

1. You have loose, sagging skin. Liposuction is designed specifically to target fatty tissue, it will not significantly improve the appearance of loose skin. Other body contouring procedures, such as a tummy tuck or body lift, may be better options for you.

2. You want to lose a significant amount of weight. Liposuction can improve your shape, which can help you look thinner and more fit, but it’s not a weight-loss method. While some overweight patients can benefit from the reshaping effects, the most satisfied patients tend to be happy with their weight prior to surgery.

3. You are just looking to address cellulite. While liposuction can remove fat, it cannot always remove the appearance of cellulite. If it is just cellulite and not fat removal that is your main concern, we recommend Cellulaze.

Liposuction alternatives do exist, although for substantial areas of fat reduction we would recommend traditional liposuction. This is because this technique is more effective at removing fat cells, tightening the skin and permanently changing the shape than other liposuction alternatives.

Liposuction alternatives include:

+ Surgical Fat Excision - the fat is removed, but it is not easy to thin large areas via this technique without multiple operations. This is really only useful if one is also removing the skin as in a breast reduction
+ Chemical injections  - Desoxycholic acid (Kybella, Lipodissolve, Aqualyx) destroys fat but is painful and requires multiple treatments. There is also little control as to where the injected drug will spread, again potentially causing irregularities. We do not use them at the Cadogan Clinic for these reasons.
+ Non-surgical treatments – good for those who do not want a surgical operation. These are significantly less effective when it comes to achieving meaningful results, and are not recommended for those looking for significant outcomes

Our founder, Bryan Mayou, pioneered Liposuction and introduced it into the UK 40 years ago. The basic technique remains, but he has continued to develop and refine the procedure so that now the Cadogan Clinic offers various liposuction techniques, but only those, which are considered safe and effective and have specific uses.

Traditional liposuction

We generally use traditional simple liposuction to remove small areas of fat and usually under local anaesthesia, such as a bulge or lipoma. It is particularly useful for treating the neck and the chin, as it is at least as effective as any other technique, is simple and has the fewest potential complications. We use this regularly to harvest fat for processing and re-injection as fat grafting.

BodyJet or Water Assisted Liposuction (WAL)

This is an enhancement of the traditional technique with the added ability to inject local anaesthetic fluid at the same time as carrying out the liposuction. This fluid pulses from the end of the cannula like a low-pressure washer helping to mechanically dislodge fat. Large volumes can be removed quickly and efficiently. It is particularly good with more difficult areas such as the breast, where the fat is more firmly fixed.

Power-Assisted Liposuction (PAL).

MicroAire and Lipomatic are two of several mechanically enhanced techniques. They remove the fat as the motorised cannula moves back and forth, sideways or rotates. It is very effective and popular amongst surgeons, primarily because there is less physical effort involved.

Laser-Assisted Liposuction (LAL)

The most successful of these techniques is the Smartlipo, now in its third generation, Smartlipo Triplex. We are lucky to have the pioneer of this treatment, Mr Al-Ayoubi, with his huge experience using the technique in all areas. As in all liposuction, there is skin tightening, but the laser enhances this, particularly around the inner thighs and arms where the skin is thin.

Cellulaze

Subcision is the standard minor surgical technique in which tethering fibres are cut through tiny stabs. It has been recently popularised by an expensive adaptation called Cellfina. Cellulaze however, does all this by laser, but in addition, has a second laser which shrinks the skin. It can also treat large areas at a single session.

We do not use ultrasound techniques, popularised in the UK such as Vaser, as we consider that it has no advantage and adds unnecessary complications.

Why do we not use ultrasound liposuction?

The founder of the clinic, Bryan Mayou, carried out two years of research in the early days of ultrasound liposuction and developed the technique which became the most popular in the United States. There were, however, many potential risks and it was recommended that ultrasound should only be used for short periods of time necessitating the use of traditional liposuction to complete the procedure.

Ultrasound liposuction in Bryan Mayou's opinion was merely a marketing tool and he did not adopt it himself.

Since this time ultrasound has reappeared in different forms of which the most popular in the UK is Vaser. As a centre for liposuction, the Cadogan Clinic has built up huge experience and therefore does see a number of poor results from elsewhere, requiring reconstruction. Almost all of these are where Vaser has been used. Bryan Mayou believes that trained surgeons can make different techniques work well for themselves, but it remains our experience that Vaser has problems. It is claimed to be quicker, more effective and less painful than other techniques. This is simply not true. We see lumpy results and occasional burns. The frequent complication is the development of seromas or collections of fluid requiring drainage. He has never seen this in the thousands of treatments that he has carried out, and it is only Vaser that is still producing them. The Cadogan Clinic does not recommend its use.

After undergoing a Juvederm treatment, some temporary side effects are expected and are normal as part of the healing process.

Common side effects from injectable Juvederm fillers are redness and soreness surrounding the treatment area.

Most side effects of Juvederm are temporary, and should not persist longer than 3-4 days. The length of time in which side effects may last can often vary depending on the patient and the area in which the procedure has taken place. Side effects of Juvederm fillers do tend to fade within a few days of treatment.

Juvederm should not be used by patients with severe allergies to bacterial proteins, or patients with a history of anaphylaxis.

It is advised to book a consultation with one of our licenced practising professionals at Cadogan Cosmetics when considering the use of injectable Juvederm fillers.

There are many reasons why people may feel that they are ready to undergo Juvederm lip fillers; from having a thin or no visible upper lip, wanting to achieve a more voluptuous kiss or to fill out unwanted early wrinkles.

If you are considering undergoing a Juvederm treatment, then please contact Cadogan Clinic to book a consultation with one of our practising professionals. During your consultation, our team will be able to answer any questions that you may have to, help put your mind at ease, and talk you through the most suitable dosage for you and your desired look.

Juvederm, injected into the lips, will commonly last between 4 and 8 months, however this can vary depending on the patient and also the particular brand of Juvederm. Once the initial treatment has been completed, no aftercare is required to maintain the results of the treatment, and normal routines can be resumed the same day.

If you wish to maintain the fuller lip for longer than the expected 4-8 months, then top up procedures will be required every 5-7months. Should you choose to do so, the Juvederm dosage can be altered on each occasion to help build a more accurate, desired look.

When receiving Juvederm, the dosage will determine outcome of the procedure; smaller portions of Juvederm will help to create subtle differences to the treatment area, whereas larger doses can contribute to more noticeable differences. Our practitioners will be able to advise you on what dosage is right for you.

The procedure does not take long; the product is loaded into a syringe, and then injected directly into the treatment area. The procedure is relatively pain free due to the use of numbing cream; however, this will vary depending on the patient.

Juvederm is not suitable for woman that are pregnant, or those that are currently breastfeeding.

For more information, book a consultation with Cadogan Clinic today.

Dermal Fillers can be applied to different areas to achieve multiple results. They are commonly used to increase the volume and size of lips: this treatment option is often used by women to reverse or delay the unwanted signs of ageing.

Dermal Fillers are also a common treatment for facial lines that may appear as a sign of ageing and stress, in particular forehead wrinkles and wrinkles around the eyes (often referred to as crow’s feet).

Skin conditions that can be treated by Dermal Fillers include:

  • Sunken Cheeks

  • Acne Scars

  • Regular Scars

  • Frown Lines

  • Facial Lines

  • Tear Troughs

Dermal Fillers can be used to rejuvenate, contour and enhance areas such as:

  • Nose

  • Lips

  • Mouth Corners

  • Eyebrows

  • Chin and Cheeks

Different fillers and procedures will be used depending on the treatment area and the desired results.

For more specifics on procedures and different treatment areas we recommend getting in touch to book a free consultation with one of our specialists.

There are several different types of Dermal Fillers and choosing the right type for you will depend on your desired results.

A first general differentiation is between temporary (or resorbable) fillers – the vast majority of fillers used in the UK – and permanent/semi-permanent dermal fillers (or non-resorbable), used less commonly.

Temporary fillers will last approximately 6 to 9 months and are considered to be very safe, as the produce will gradually be absorbed by the body over a period of time, which lowers the possibility of long term side effects significantly.  There are different types of temporary fillers, which can be categorised based on their main component. The most common include:

  • Hyaluronic acid fillers

    Hyaluronic acid fillers are the most popular category of dermal fillers and come in different brand names, such as Juvederm and Restylane, with slight differences and varying results. As their main active ingredient, hyaluronic acid, is a natural substance in the human body, these fillers are highly safe and side effects are very rare.

    Different types of Hyaluronic acid fillers present diverse levels of thickness offering flexible solutions to treat different areas and skin conditions: thinner fillers are typically more suitable for the treatment of wrinkles and fine lines and for lip enhancement; thicker fillers are more suitable to treat deep wrinkles and loss of volume.

  • Calcium Hydroxylapatite fillers

    Calcium Hydroxylapatite is a substance found naturally in human bones and is the main element of brand products such as Radiesse. Dermal fillers based on Calcium Hydroxylapatite have longer lasting effects and are commonly used for facial sculpting, typically to treat deep lines and creases such as nasolabial folds and to enhance the volume of the cheeks and other facial contours. Calcium Hydroxylapatite is normally not applied to the lips.

  • Collagen Simulators based on Polylactic acid

    Collagen Stimulators – such as Sculptra – are used to add volume and improve skin texture and can be used in particular to treat facial fat loss.

This type of treatment produces more subtle, less immediate results, which will gradually improve over several months. This is thanks to the fact that, once injected, Collagen Stimulators encourage the body to form its own collagen over time.

The main element of collagen stimulators such as Sculptra is poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), a synthetic material which helps to replace lost collagen.

Rosacea is a chronic condition and there is no known cure.

The best way to help prevent regular flare-ups, however, is to try and identify triggers for the condition and to avoid these wherever possible.

To isolate these, we typically recommend keeping a food diary and tracking which products you use on your skin, and their respective effects on your redness.

Avoiding sun exposure is also a good idea, as is using liberal amounts of sun cream on a daily basis, even when it is not sunny. You should also try to limit your intake of caffeine and alcohol.

Some cosmetics can effectively cover up rosacea and you may also benefit from skin camouflage.

Research indicates that drinking alcohol is a common trigger for rosacea, and can increase the likelihood of a flare-up in an individual disposed to rosacea.

The risk of developing rosacea typically increases with the increase in alcohol consumed.

This is not always the case, however, and rosacea can be triggered by a variety of other emotional, environmental and medical factors.

It is also true that people who do not drink alcohol can suffer from rosacea.

There is no definitive evidence that rosacea is genetic, although it is common that rosacea sufferers also have family members who suffer from the condition.

This is a very common disorder, impacting roughly 1% of the population

Rosacea sufferers are typically

+ Between the ages of 30 and 50 years of age
+ Fair skinned
+ Blonde haired, blue eyed
+ Likely related to someone who also has rosacea
+ Likely has or has had acne
+ Female

Rosacea is not a dangerous condition in and of itself.

That said, it can cause a serious impact on self-esteem and self-confidence, and have a negative effect on an individual's mental health and wellbeing

Rosacea can occasionally get better with age, but this is rare.

Your results are not permanent, and it is not possible to completely cure rosacea. That said, it can be properly controlled and prevented from worsening via proper treatment.

Dermal Fillers are a safe, swift and effective non-surgical treatment that help to soften facial wrinkles creases or folds, 'fill out' hollows and recreate the smooth contours of a younger complexion.

Dermal Fillers can also be used to treat scars including acne scarring or those acquired through injury or surgery as well as other age-related depressions in the skin.

There are different types of Dermal Fillers, composed by a variety of substances both natural and synthetic. Some are produced from collagen – the main structural protein of connective tissues in humans, others are synthetically produced in a laboratory and derived from hyaluronic acid, a water holding molecule which acts as a cushioning and hydrating agent in all mammals.

Hyaluronic acid – also known as Hyaluronan, Hyaluronate or HA – is a substance that is naturally found in the human body, where it acts as a cushion and lubricant in the joints and other tissues. In particular, it's present in high concentrations in fluids in the eyes and in the joints.

Hyaluronic acid has multiple beneficial functions, such as hydrating the skin, stimulating the production of collagen in skin, acting as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger, maintaining skin elasticity and cushioning joints and nerve tissues. It also has an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory function and maintains the fluid in the eye tissues.

Just like other protective agents in the body though, naturally occurring Hyaluronic acid levels decrease over time as we age. It is therefore commonly injected as the main active ingredient of filler treatments for cosmetically filling areas of volume loss or eliminating signs of ageing such as facial wrinkles.

Hyaluronic acid fillers are the most common type of dermal fillers. Juvederm and Restylane are common brand names of injectables based on Hyaluronic acid.

This treatment is particularly appealing due to the low risk it presents since we use the patient's own tissue is used to reshape and re-contour their body in a natural way. We not using implants or artificial filler, which for some people is important.

The most common side effects are temporary bruising and swelling, but infection can also occur. The graft not 'taking' properly is also a risk, so we ask you not to exercise strongly for a week or two to allow the new fat graft to take up a new blood supply.

Patients do need to discuss with their consultant the range of possible results carefully before surgery, since expectations will vary. Some will be happy with a slight improvement and others will need more significant changes to be satisfied.

The most significant risk of fat transfer is fat embolization in which fat enters the blood stream and interrupts an otherwise healthy blood supply, with associated risks including blindness, stroke and death.

Whilst rare, this emphasizes the importance of establishing your surgeon's credentials. It will always be a risk, in untrained hands. The Cadogan surgeons will avoid injecting in certain areas and use safer cannulas.

We also do not practice riskier procedures such as fat transfer to the buttock (BBL) given the higher incidence rate of embolism in other countries where it is practiced, caused by the higher volume of fat injected into the target site and the large arteries in the buttock.

With age, the upper layer of the skin, the epidermis, gradually becomes thinner, offering less protection to the lower layer, the dermis. Also, the ageing process reduces the production of collagen, the main component of the dermis, which gives the skin its strength, elasticity and firmness. This results in the appearance of wrinkles, folds and other age-related skin depressions.

As we age natural hyaluronic acid production slows down (creating the ageing effect), but can effectively topped up by dermal filler treatment.

Dermal fillers integrate naturally occurring active substances such as collagen and hyaluronic acid to rejuvenate the appearance of the skin.

The main action of Hyaluronic acid is to attract and retain large quantities of moisture when injected to the dermis, thereby generating a semi-permanent volumizing or 'plumping' filler effect.

It secondary action is to helps to hydrate the skin, act as an antioxidant and maintain skin elasticity.

The treatment can take between 20 and 30 minutes, depending on the area being treated. Repeat visits can be shorter, and take between 10 – 15 minutes

Dermal Filler treatments in the UK are currently unregulated meaning any aesthetic practitioner can perform them. This has led to the proliferation of low quality 'high street' providers, and filler treatments even being made available in non-medical environments such as gyms.

At the Cadogan Clinic we believe such practices are extremely risky and highly correlated with unsafe and poor aesthetic outcomes.

We only offer consultant – led filler treatments, performed by highly trained cosmetic dermatologists or plastic surgeons.

Dermal filler treatments are generally not painful, although the amount of discomfort you experience may vary depending on the area. Treatments around the lip and nose area are typically the most uncomfortable but this can still be tolerated well though topically applied anaesthetic cream.

There is typically no downtime at all.

There may be a slight mild redness, swelling, tenderness, bruising, or itching which usually subsides after a few hours following treatment - most patients can return to work or to their regular activities immediately after receiving treatment, although we recommend 24hrs before doing any vigorous exercise.

Dermal fillers work instantly so you should start to see the results immediately. We typically recommend allowing a week or so before expecting to see the final results, in order to allow for any minor swelling or bruising to su