Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL)
This is a rare type of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, where a white blood cell, the T cell, becomes malignant. There is very rare subtype, the Breast Implant Associated, ( BIA - ALCL). It occurs with 1 in 30,000 implants. 45 cases have occurred in the UK of which 1 patient died. Suspicion should arise when there is swelling of the breast more than a year after implantation. It is easily curable by capsulectomy alone, but it is not known whether a new implant should be replaced.
Detailed information can be found on the BAAPS website.
This is a small flexible tube that can be inserted into the body to remove or deliver fluid. Commonly, it is inserted into a blood vessel, as, for instance, into a vein in the back of the hand by an anaesthetist in order to take a blood sample and deliver drugs directly into the blood stream. A larger metal cannula is used to remove fat by liposuction.
A capsule is the fibrous tissue which surrounds organs or develops around foreign objects. We are concerned about fibrous capsules which surround breast implants. A thin capsule is normal. However, if a thick develops, it will contract, squeezing the soft implant into a tight, hard sphere and deforming the breast shape.
A capsulotomy is the release of this pressure by cutting through the capsule. A capsulectomy is the removal of all or part of the capsule, in the hope that a recurrence is less likely.
Drains are of two main types: a simple strip of silicone or a tube with suction added as a squeegee bulb or bottle. Drains may stay in place from 1 to 5 days.
Their purpose is to aid unwanted liquid, usually, blood or serum, to drain from the body.
Left inside the blood or serum may delay healing and allow infection.
New techniques allow surgery of the face, breast and tummy to be carried out without drains. Drains have their own problems and are unpopular with patients. Surgery without drains is an important attraction of the Cadogan Clinic, where all surgery is carried out easily as a Day case.
A hypertrophic scar is a healing wound, which over heals, but, after some months, unlike a keloid, regresses becoming mature, pale, painless and of moderate quality Some people, are prone to these, particularly the redhead with pale freckled skin..
This is a surgical cut made into the body to remove tissue or allow access to underlying. The cutting instrument may be a scalpel, electrocautery diathermy or laser.
This refers to something occurring, performed or situated within the mouth.
A keloid is the scar of a wound which over heals and, like a benign tumour, goes on growing. It is itchy, red and painful. It occurs more commonly in a black skin and certain areas of the body, such as the centre of the chest, tip of the shoulder and beard area.
Reconstructive plastic surgery
This is surgery undertaken to correct congenital and acquired abnormalities on the face or body caused by disease, injury, ageing and cancer. Its’ purpose is to improve function, but it will also restore normal appearance and improve self-esteem. It will involve burn and trauma surgery, microvascular, hand and cosmetic surgery. The common thread is that the same specialised techniques are used to achieve efficient healing.
Subcutaneous tissue is located beneath the skin. It consists of loose connective tissues and fat lobules with nerves and blood vessels running through it and supplying it. Subcutaneous injections are administered into this fatty tissue and are thus shallower than intra -muscular injections and deeper than intra-dermal (deep layer oy the skin) injections.
The suture is the thread used to hold the edges of body tissues together after surgical incision or injury. Absorbable sutures are easily digested by the enzymes in the body, but non-absorbable sutures will be removed by your doctor when healing is complete. Absorbable sutures include polyglactin, gut, poliglecaprone, and polydioxanone. Examples of non-absorbable sutures are nylon, silk, polypropylene, and polyester.
These are undifferentiated cells of a multicellular organism that can develop into other specific cells as required by the body. They mainly originate from embryos and adult body tissues. Adult stem cells are also known as somatic stem cells or tissue-specific stem cells. They exist in a nonspecific state and remain in this state until the body needs them. Stem cells are present in the bone marrow, brain, skin, and the liver, but fat is the biggest reservoir and often the most convenient to use for treatments.
Suspension Threads and Sutures
These threads or sutures are used to statically lift and hold mobile tissue upwards by anchoring it to a firm point, such as bone or fascia. The advantage is that the insertion of threads is minimally invasive. Many threads are put in under the skin, sometimes without a firm anchor point, but extrusion through the skin is the main risk.. The most popular threads (PDO and Silhouette) reduce this risk by dissolving, relying on scar tissue for subsequent strength.
Strong nylon sutures put in at a deep level do not extrude, are permanent and can be used in a micro or mini-lift.
This is the usual surgical incision to access the lower eyelid. In a blepharoplasty excess skin and far may be removed. The incision runs immediately under the lashes and out further into the crows feet as necessary.
This is the method of operating on the lower eyelids. Usually, surgery on the eyelid is made from the outside with an incision under the lashes. However with the transconjunctival approach, the incision is made from inside the lid through the conjunctiva, it is then possible to remove or readjust bulging fat, which constitutes the eyebags.
It is a gentle and precise procedure and has the advantage that there is no visible scar and healing is quicker with less bruising.
Visceral fat or belly fat is body fat that is found in the abdominal cavity and wraps around the abdominal organs. It is also referred to as active fat because it directly affects hormonal function. Excess visceral fat is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. It also produces inflammatory markers.
This month Consultant Dermatologist Dr Susan Mayou discusses rosacea with Heart.co.uk, and talks to the Daily Mail about the latest skincare craze, chlorophyll.